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系統識別號 U0026-2001202007192700
論文名稱(中文) 環境特徵對台灣老年人罹患失智症風險的影響:以全人口為基礎的研究
論文名稱(英文) The Influences of Environmental Characteristics on the risk of Dementia among Elderly in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 公共衛生研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Public Health
學年度 108
學期 1
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 劉芷菁
研究生(英文) Chih-Ching Liu
學號 T88021029
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 154頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡淑貞
口試委員-李中一
口試委員-孫瑜
口試委員-孔憲法
口試委員-郭憲文
中文關鍵字 失智症  阿茲海默型失智症  發生率  盛行率  描述性研究  趨勢分析  物理環境  社會環境  病例對照研究  縱貫性研究 
英文關鍵字 Dementia  Incidence  Prevalence  Descriptive epidemic study  Trend analysis  Physical environments  Social environments  Case-control study  Longitudinal study 
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景
過去研究證實失智症和失能、死亡風險和醫療支出的增加有關,已被世界衛生組織列為全球人類公共衛生的優先議題。阿茲海默症型失智症為最常見的失智症。近來研究報導失智症發生率和盛行率在很多西方國家已有下降和趨緩趨勢,且大多在老人和女性被診斷出來。然而,鮮少研究報導有關亞洲國家以全國為基礎的失智症發生率和盛行率之年代趨勢變化和其在年齡和性別之差異。此外,過去研究大多探討個人因子與失智症的相關,鮮少研究針對物理和社會環境特性對失智症發生風險的影響進行探討。

研究目的
本研究目的首先是描述台灣地區整體失智症和阿茲海默症型失智症的發生率和盛行率之趨勢變化,並分析於不同性別和年齡在整體失智症和阿茲海默症型失智症在之發生率和盛行率之差異。此外,本研究更進一步探討物理和社會環境特性對整體失智症和阿茲海默症型失智症發生風險的關聯。

研究方法
本研究利用我國全民健康保險申報資料完成「描述性流行病學研究」,分析2004-2010年整體失智和阿茲海默型失智症在發生率及盛行率年代趨勢變化。利用卜瓦松迴歸進行整體失智和阿茲海默型失智症發生率及盛行率之年代線性趨勢檢定,並評估年齡與性別對其發生率和盛行率的影響。此外,本研究也利用全民健康保險研究資料和政府統計資料進行完成2個「病例對照研究」。病例組為2010年整體失智症和阿茲海默型失智症新診斷之65歲(含)以上個案,對照組則是以病例組個案之性別、年齡和年代進行1:1配對之隨機樣本。
研究個案的個人資料擷取至全民健康保險研究資料。研究個案居住的環境資料擷取自鄉鎮層級的政府統計資料,包含過去文獻指出可能與認知損傷有關的3項物理環境指標(公園、綠地和廣場的可取得性、遊樂場所和體育場所的可取得性、社區活動中心的可取得性)和3項社會環境指標(每年家庭收支的中位數、65歲(含)以上老人的不識字率、獨居老人的比率)。本研究利用多層次邏吉斯迴歸模式計算在控制個人特性(年齡、性別、職業別、投保薪資、共病數目)和其他環境特性(鄉鎮別醫院和診所的密度和都市化程度)的干擾效應後,分析個案居住鄉鎮市區環境特性對整體失智症和阿茲海默型失智症之校正勝算比。此外,我們更進一步探討居住所在地都市化程度不同是否對於這些環境特性與阿茲海默型失智症的關係有效果修飾作用。

研究結果
從2004-2010年間,台灣地區整體失智症和阿茲海默型失智症發生率分別由10.9/1,000人年略微下降至10.7/1,000人年和4.9 /1,000人年略微下降至4.6 /1,000人年;然而,在相同期間,整體失智症和阿茲海默型失智症盛行率的則分別由4.7 /1,000人顯著上升至7.6/100人和2.3 /100人顯著上升至3.5/100人年。較高的發生率與盛行率與女性、年紀較長有關。
在病例對照研究部份,第一個研究納入26,206位一般失智病患和26,206位性別、年齡和年代相匹配的非失智病患,經多層次邏吉斯迴歸模式發現,在控制個人特性和其他環境特性後,居住在遊樂場和體育場所可取得性較高的鄉鎮者發生失智的風險顯著降低12%(95%CI= 0.81-0.95)。此外,居住鄉鎮地區的社區活動中心取得性也和失智發生風險顯著下降有關,但此相關在控制個人因素後消失。雖然居住於每年家庭收入中位數較高的鄉鎮有較高的失智風險,此顯著效應也在控制個人和環境特性的模式中消失。
第二個研究納入了12,401位新診斷阿茲海默型失智病患和12,401位年齡、性別和年代相匹配的非阿茲海默型失智病患。經多層次邏吉斯迴歸模式發現,在同時考慮研究對象的個人特性和其他環境特性後,居住在遊樂場和運動場可獲得性較高的鄉鎮地區,發生阿茲海默症型失智症的危險性顯著下降3%(95% CI = 0.96-0.99);但居住於獨居的老年人密度較高的鄉鎮地區發生阿茲海默症型失智症的危險性卻顯著上升5%(95% CI = 1.01-1.11)。進一步探討此研究結果是否隨居住所在地都市化程度而不同,結果顯示僅有鄉村地區有相同研究結果。除了前述2項環境指標外,居住在鄉下者,若處於較高社區活動中心可取得性,則顯著減少11%阿茲海默型失智症發生的風險(95%CI=0.79-0.99)。然而,居住在郊區者,若處於65歲以上不識字的百分比較高的鄉鎮,則顯著增加24%阿茲海默型失智症發生的風險(95%CI=1.04-1.48)。

結論
總結來說,我國2004-2010年整體失智症和阿茲海默型失智症的發生率呈現穩定趨勢,但其盛行率在研究期間卻是呈現顯著上升趨勢。女性、年齡較大與較高的一般型失智症和阿茲海默型失智症發生率和盛行率有關。居住在遊樂場和運動場可獲得性較高的鄉鎮地區發生一般型失智症和阿茲海默型失智症的風險會顯著下降,然而居住在獨居的老年人密度較高的鄉鎮地區發生阿茲海默症型失智症的危險性卻顯著上升。此外,特定的物理和社會環境對於阿茲海默型失智症的效應會隨著居住所在地都市化程度而不同。公共衛生介入措施應該考慮這些人口學和環境的觀點來預防或延遲一般型失智症和阿茲海默型失智症的發生。
英文摘要 Background:
Dementia has been regarded as a public health priority worldwide because previous studies have reported that dementia is potentially related to increased disability, mortality, and cost. Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Recent studies have reported the declining or stable incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in many Western countries and most of them have been diagnosed at an older age and in women. However, the population-based secular trends in incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD and its differences in age and gender have rarely been reported in Asia. Additionally, most studies were conducted to explore the association between the individual factors and the incidence of dementia and AD, but the influence of physical and social environments on the incidence of dementia and AD were rarely reported.

Purposes:
The aim of this study was to assess secular trends for annual incidence density and prevalence rate of dementia and AD and to analyze the difference in incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD by age and gender. Moreover, this study further explored the association between the township-level features of physical and social environments and the risk of dementia and AD.

Methods:
We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database (NHIRD) to conduct a descriptive epidemical study and then to analyze the secular trends (2004-2010) for annual incidence density and prevalence rate of dementia and AD. We performed Poisson regression analysis to assess the linear trends in annual incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD, and to assess the effects of age and gender on the variations of dementia and AD incidence and prevalence rates. Furthermore, we conducted 2 population-based case–control studies by using the NHIRD and government statistics. We identified newly diagnosed dementia and AD cases aged≧65 years in 2010. Each case and its age-, sex-, and index year matched control group case was randomly selected with a 1:1 ratio from National Health Insurance claims in Taiwan.
Environmental data were collected from the township level of government statistics, including three physical environment factors ( availability of “parks, greeneries, and square area”, “playgrounds and sport venues”, and “community centers”) and three social environment factors (“Median annual family income”, “Density of illiterate people aged≧65”, “Density of elderly living alone”). These environmental factors may be potentially related to cognition impairment. We employed multilevel logistic regression models to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of dementia and AD in relation to these environmental features at the township level after controlling for variables pertaining to individual characteristics (occupational status, insurance premium, and no. of comorbidities) and other environmental characteristics (hospitals and clinics, and urbanization status). Besides, we further explored whether the association of these environmental features with the incidence of AD was altered by the level of urbanization where individuals lived.

Results:
From 2004 to 2010, the annual incidence of dementia and AD aged ≧65 in Taiwan showed a slight and non-significant decreasing trend, from 10.9/1,000 person-years to 10.7/1,000 person-years and from 4.9/1,000 person-years to 4.6/1,000 person-years, respectively. However, in the same period, the prevalence of dementia and AD aged≧65 in Taiwan significantly increased from 4.7 to 7.6 per hundred people and 2.3 to 3.5 per hundred people, respectively. We found increased incidence and prevalence rate of dementia and AD were associated with female sex and older age.
As for case-control studies, the first study enrolled age-, gender-, and index year- matched control group subjects with (n=26,206) and without (n=26,206) newly diagnosed dementia. Multilevel logistic regression analysis revealed that people living in townships with higher availability of playgrounds and sport venues were associated with a significantly 12 % decreased AOR (95%CI= 0.81-0.95) of dementia after controlling for individual and other environmental characteristics. Additionally, the availability of community centers was also significantly associated with lower incidence of dementia, but such a significant association did not exist after further adjustment for individual-level characteristics. Although high-level median annual family income was associated with higher odds of dementia, the association was not significant in the full model.
The second study enrolled age-, gender-, and index year- matched control group subjects with (n=12,401) and without (n=12,401) newly diagnosed AD. Multilevel logistic regression analysis revealed a significantly reduced 3 % odds of AD in areas with high playground and sport venue availability (95%CI= 0.96–0.99) independent of individual and other environmental characteristics, while a significantly increased 5% odds of dementia was found in areas with a higher density of elderly living alone in the full model(95%CI= 1.01–1.11). Further examination of urbanization level showed that the above association was found only in rural areas but not in urban areas. In addition to the above two factors, we also found that in rural areas, high availability of community centers was associated with reduced odds of AD (OR=0.89, 95%CI= 0.79-0.99). However, in suburban areas, only high percentage of illiterate people aged≧65 was found to be related to increased odds of AD (OR=1.24, 95%CI=1.04-1.48).

Conclusion:
In conclusion, although the overall incidence of dementia and AD was stable between 2004 and 2010 in Taiwan, significantly rising trends in the prevalence of dementia and AD were still observed over the study period. Female sex and older age were associated with the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD. Living in townships with high playground and sport venue availability were associated with a reduced risk of developing dementia and AD, while living in areas with higher density of elderly living alone were associated with an increased risk of developing AD. Additionally, the effects of some specific physical and social environmental features on the risk of developing AD were altered by levels of urbanization. Public health interventions should consider these demographics and environmental aspects for preventing or delaying dementia and AD incidence.
論文目次 CONTENT
CHINESE ABSTRACT I
ABSTRACT IV
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT VIII
CONTENT IX
LIST OF TABLES X
LIST OF FIGURES XII
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and significance of research 1
1.2 Research purposes 4
1.3 Research question and hypothesis 5
CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Prevalence and incidence of dementia and AD 7
2.2 Factors related to the development of dementia and AD 16
2.3 Possible mechanisms of environmental effects on cognitive health 47
2.4 Methodological issues of environmental effects on the risk of dementia and AD 49
CHAPTER III. MATERIALS AND METHODS 51
3.1 Data Source 51
3.2 Participants 52
3.3 Study design 60
3.4 Measurements 61
3.5 Statistical analysis 69
CHAPTER IV. RESULTS 74
4.1 Demographic variations and the trends of dementia and AD 74
4.2 Environmental features and the risk of developing dementia 91
4.3 Environmental features and the risk of developing AD 101
CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION 111
5.1 Trends in incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD 111
5.2 Environmental features and the risk of developing dementia 115
5.3 Environmental features and the risk of developing AD 122
CHAPTER VI. CONCLUSIONS 130
REFERENCES 132
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