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系統識別號 U0026-2001201615044500
論文名稱(中文) 職業培訓與工業設計師職涯發展之關係研究
論文名稱(英文) A Study on the Relationship between Vocational Training and Industrial Designer's Career Development
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 104
學期 1
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 劉庭毓
研究生(英文) Ting-Yu Liu
學號 P36011066
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 138頁
口試委員 指導教授-劉說芳
口試委員-陸定邦
口試委員-陳連福
中文關鍵字 職涯發展  工業設計  設計師職能  職業培訓  工作滿意 
英文關鍵字 Career development  Industrial design  Designer competency  Vocational training  Job satisfaction 
學科別分類
中文摘要 過去工業設計追求在有限資源下提高效能和產量來進行差異化設計,而現代設計之核心價值則在於透過創新的產品、系統、服務及體驗來推動商業成功,並且帶來更美好的生活品質,因此如何運用設計為企業創造價值成為企業轉型的出路。近年來,在產業需求帶動下,國內大學紛紛成立設計系所,使越來越多設計人才投入業界,設計人力照理來說應處於供需平衡狀態。然而,台灣大多數中小企業受限資源不足,人才招募及運用困難,真正能成功轉型而獲利者其實不多。面對環境快速的變化,想藉由設計獲取競爭優勢,設計人才成為企業不可或缺的重要資本;而產業對設計人才而言,亦是培養專業能力、維持其職業生涯之重要環境。為了解目前工業設計相關系所畢業生在進入職場後,職業培訓之實施情形,與培訓對設計師職業發展之影響,研究首先回顧職涯發展理論、工業設計職能及設計職業培訓之相關文獻,建立研究假設並設計研究問卷,以「工業設計相關系所畢業,具有設計工作經驗的設計師」為調查對象,發放半開放式問卷,並說明問卷調查的方法和過程。透過因素分析及結構方程式驗證假設模型後之結果顯示:(1)由於設計師經常身兼多職,企業較少提供固定的教育訓練,而是透過不影響工作進度又能節省成本的職內培訓和經驗交流來訓練設計師;(2)工業設計師多半從做中學累積實務經驗來訓練專業能力,故實際上專業技術職能培訓之重要度相對不高,反而比較需要經營管理能力等其他職業培訓;(3)假設驗證結果顯示,完善的職業培訓確實能提升工作滿意度,但是工作滿意度的提高,不代表設計師的留任意願也會提高;(4)目前企業對設計師離職意願較無積極作為來留住人才,顯示設計人力資本未受重視,因此設計師多利用離職來轉換環境,以尋求能持續學習成長的機會。
英文摘要 In the past, industrial designs pursue enhancing performance and production to proceed with design differentiation under limited resources. While the core values of modern designs is to push business success via innovative products, systems, services, and experiences and also bring more goodliness for the life quality. Therefore how to apply design has become the outlet for the enterprise transformations and for enterprises to create values. In recent years, being driven by industrial demands, domestic universities in succession establish departments and graduate institute of designs, let more and more design talent to devote into this industry. The supply and need of design personnel should reasonably at the equilibrium state. However, Taiwan’s most small to medium enterprise with limited resource is insufficient, hiring people and applications are difficult. Those who can truly transform in success and profit from it are in fact not many. Facing the rapid variation of environment, to obtain competitive edge through designs, design talents become enterprises’ must-have important capitals; while the industry for design talents, also is to culture professional capability, an environment to remain the importance of its vocational career. To understand at the moment graduate students of the industrial design related departments after they enter the workplace, the enforcement condition of vocational training, and the influence of trainings for designer vocational development, this study firstly looked back career development theory, references related to industrial design competency and design vocational training. We created research assumptions and designed research questionnaire on industrial design related departments and graduate institutes, who are provided with design job experiences. Its goes through designer’s investigation targets, distributed semi open-ended questionnaire, and explain method and process of the questionnaire survey. Via factor analysis and structural equations to verify the assumed model, the results indicated that: (1) Since designers often take several tasks at the same time, less enterprises provide fixed educational training, in-job trainings and experience intercommunions that do not influence the job progress also can save the cost for training designers; (2) Industrial designers mostly train professional capability semi learning by cumulating actual practice experiences. Thus in reality the importance professional technique of competency training is relatively not high; instead relatively require other vocational trainings such as building the management capability, etc.; (3) Hypothesis testing results indicated that providing consummate design vocational training planning indeed can enhance job satisfaction. But job satisfaction enhance and may not representing designers’ willingness to stay will enhance accordingly; (4) At the moment enterprise intention for designer to turnover have less optimistic to keep the people. This indicated that design personnel capital are not valued, therefore designers’ turnover to shift the environment so as to search for continuing learning and the chance for development.
論文目次 Table of Contents
摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures xi
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives 2
1.3 Research Process 3
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Career Development 6
2.1.1 The Definition of Career Development 6
2.1.2 The Stages of Career Development 7
2.1.3 The Ways of Career Development 10
2.2 Industrial Designer Professional Competency 13
2.2.1 The Definition of Industrial Design 13
2.2.2 Designer Workplace Condition and Manpower Needs 14
2.2.3 Industrial Designer Competency 16
2.3 Vocational Training for Designer 17
2.3.1 The Meaning and Purpose of Vocational Training 18
2.3.2 Vocational Training Methods 18
2.3.3 Related Research about Designer’s Vocational Training 21
2.4 Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention 23
2.4.1 Related Research about Job Satisfaction 23
2.4.2 Related Research about Turnover Intention 25
2.5 Summary 28
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 29
3.1 The Research Framework and Hypothesis 29
3.2 Construct, Variables, and Measurements 30
3.2.1 Basic Information 31
3.2.2 Career Development Conditions 31
3.2.3 Vocational Training Conditions 31
3.2.4 Training Needs about Designer Competency 32
3.2.5 Job Satisfaction 33
3.2.6 Career Orientations 35
3.3 Research Design 36
3.3.1 Pre-test Questionnaire 36
3.3.2 Formal Questionnaire 37
3.4 Data Collection and Limitations 41
3.4.1 Case Selection 41
3.4.2 Research Limitations 41
3.5 Data Analysis and Verification 42
3.5.1 Descriptive Statistics Analysis 42
3.5.2 Reliability and Validity Analysis 42
3.5.3 Structure Equation Model 43
3.5.4 Independent Sample T-test and One-way ANOVA 44
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 45
4.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis 45
4.1.1 Data Collection 45
4.1.2 Basic Information 45
4.1.3 Workplace Condition 47
4.1.4 Career Development Condition 50
4.1.5 Vocational Training Condition 53
4.1.6 Vocational Trainings, Designer’s Competencies and Job Satisfactions analysis 57
4.2 Reliability and Validity Analysis 63
4.2.1 Vocational Training 63
4.2.2 Designer Competency 70
4.2.3 Job Satisfaction 80
4.2.4 Career Development Intention 89
4.3 Structure Equation Model 90
4.3.1 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 91
4.3.2 Path Analysis and Hypothesis Test 93
4.3.3 Structure Equation Model and Hypothesis Test 95
4.4 Independent Sample T-test and One-way ANOVA 96
4.4.1 The T-test of Different Genders with each Facet 96
4.4.2 The One-way ANOVA of Different Ages with each Facet 97
4.4.3 The One-way ANOVA of Different Education Degrees with each Facet 98
4.4.4 The One-way ANOVA of Different Levels of Total Seniority with each Facet 99
4.4.5 The One-way ANOVA of Different Position of Seniority with each Facet 101
4.4.6 The One-way ANOVA of Different Management Experience with each Facet 102
4.4.7 The One-way ANOVA of Different Job Locations with each Facet 103
4.4.8 The One-way ANOVA of Different Industry Categories with each Facet 104
4.4.9 The One-way ANOVA of Different Scale of Design Organization with each Facet 106
4.4.10 The One-way ANOVA of Different Types of Design Organization with each Facet 107
4.4.11 The One-way ANOVA of Different Job Titles with each Facet 108
4.4.12 The T-test of Different Vocational Training Experience with each Facet 110
4.4.13 The One-way ANOVA of Different Training Satisfaction with each Facet 111
4.5 Summary 112
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 116
5.1 Research Conclusion and Contribution 116
5.1.1 Analysis Results of Industrial Designer, Workplace Condition, Vocational Training and Job Satisfaction 116
5.1.2 The Relationship between Vocational Training, Job Satisfaction and Career Development Intention 117
5.1.3 The Relationship between the Sample Characteristics and facets of Vocational Training, Designer Competency, Job Satisfaction and Career Development Intention 118
5.2 Suggestions, Directions and Reference for Future Research 118
5.3 Research Deficiency and Limitations 120
REFERENCES 121
APPENDIX A: Formal Questionnaire 128
APPENDIX B: Questionnaire Results 136

List of Tables
Table 2-1. 1 The definition of career development by researchers 7
Table 2-1. 2 Super’s Stages of Career Development 8
Table 2-1. 3 Schein’s Stages of Career Development 8
Table 2-1. 4 Stumpf & Rabinowitz’s Stages of Career Development 9
Table 2-1. 5 Career Development Path 10
Table 2-1. 6 Career Development Model 11
Table 2-1. 7 Schein's Career Anchors 12
Table 2-2. 1 Industrial Designers’ Job Positions 15
Table 2-3. 1 Comparison with OJT and Off-JT 19
Table 2-4. 1 The Definition of the Job Satisfaction Types 24
Table 2-4. 2 McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory 24
Table 2-4. 3 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 24
Table 2-4. 4 Related Research about Turnover 26
Table 3-1. 1 Hypothesis and Support Literatures 30
Table 3-2. 1 The Questionnaire Items for the Vocational Trainings 31
Table 3-2. 2 The Questionnaire Items for the Designer’s Competencies 32
Table 3-2. 3 Facets and Operational Definition of Job Satisfaction 33
Table 3-2. 4 The Questionnaire Items for the Designer’s Satisfaction 34
Table 3-2. 5 The Questionnaire Items for the Designer’s Career Orientations 35
Table 4-1. 1 The Demographic Information of Respondents 46
Table 4-1. 2 The Workplace Information of Respondents 48
Table 4-1. 3 Reasons for Career Change 50
Table 4-1. 4 Reasons for Selecting a Job 51
Table 4-1. 5 Reasons for Quitting the Job 51
Table 4-1. 6 Enterprises’ Responses when Designer Quitting the Job 52
Table 4-1. 7 Career Vision and Planning of Respondents 52
Table 4-1. 8 The Vocational Training Implementation Condition 54
Table 4-1. 9 Self-learning of Respondents 56
Table 4-1. 10 Reasons of Dissatisfaction about Vocational Training 56
Table 4-1. 11 Assistive Degree of the Current Design Vocational Trainings 57
Table 4-1. 12 Demand Degree of the Design Training Programs 59
Table 4-1. 13 Job Satisfaction Degree of Designer 60
Table 4-1. 14 Each facets of variables, mean and standard deviation 62
Table 4-2. 1 KMO and Bartlett's Test 63
Table 4-2. 2 The First Factor Analysis of Vocational Training 64
Table 4-2. 3 The Second Factor Analysis of Vocational Training 65
Table 4-2. 4 The First Reliability Analysis of Vocational Training 65
Table 4-2. 5 The Third Factor Analysis of Vocational Training 66
Table 4-2. 6 The Fourth Factor Analysis of Vocational Training 67
Table 4-2. 7 The Second Reliability Analysis of Vocational Training 68
Table 4-2. 8 The Final Factor Analysis of Vocational Training 69
Table 4-2. 9 The First Factor Analysis of Designer Competency 71
Table 4-2. 10 The Second Factor Analysis of Designer Competency 72
Table 4-2. 11 The Third Factor Analysis of Designer Competency 73
Table 4-2. 12 The Fourth Factor Analysis of Designer Competency 74
Table 4-2. 13 The Fifth Factor Analysis of Designer Competency 75
Table 4-2. 14 The Sixth Factor Analysis of Designer Competency 76
Table 4-2. 15 The Seventh Factor Analysis of Designer Competency 77
Table 4-2. 16 The Reliability Analysis of Designer Competency 78
Table 4-2. 17 The Final Factor Analysis of Designer Competency 78
Table 4-2. 18 The First Factor Analysis of Job Satisfaction 80
Table 4-2. 19 The Second Factor Analysis of Job Satisfaction 82
Table 4-2. 20 The Third Factor Analysis of Job Satisfaction 83
Table 4-2. 21 The Reliability Analysis of Vocational Training 85
Table 4-2. 22 The Final Factor Analysis of Vocational Training 86
Table 4-2. 23 The Reliability Analysis of Career Development Intention 89
Table 4-3. 1 The Definition of Measured Variables of SEM 91
Table 4-3. 2 PLS Quality Criteria Overview 92
Table 4-3. 3 T Values of Each Hypotheses Path 93
Table 4-3. 4 Influencing Effects between the Latent Variables 94
Table 4-3. 5 Verification Result of Hypothesis 96
Table 4-4. 1 The T-test Results on Different Gender Groups 97
Table 4-4. 2 The One-way ANOVA Results on Different Age Groups 97
Table 4-4. 3 The One-way ANOVA Results on Different Education Degree Groups 99
Table 4-4. 4 The One-way ANOVA Results on Different Total Seniority Groups 100
Table 4-4. 5 The One-way ANOVA Results on Different Position of Seniority Groups 101
Table 4-4. 6 The One-way ANOVA Results on Different Management Experience Groups 102
Table 4-4. 7 The One-way ANOVA Results on Different Job Location Groups 103
Table 4-4. 8 The One-way ANOVA Results on Different Industry Category Groups 105
Table 4-4. 9 The One-way ANOVA Results on Different Design Organization Scale 106
Table 4-4. 10 The One-way ANOVA Results on Different Design Organization Types 107
Table 4-4. 11 The One-way ANOVA Results on Different Job Title Groups 109
Table 4-4. 12 The T-test Results on Different Vocational Training Experience Groups 111
Table 4-4. 13 The One-way ANOVA Results on Different Training Satisfaction Groups 111
Table 4-5. 1 Differences between the Sample Characteristics with each Facet 115

List of Figures
Figure 1-3. 1 Research Procedure 5
Figure 2-3. 1 Education and Training System 21
Figure 3-1. 1 The Research Framework of this Study 29
Figure 3-3. 1 Formal Questionnaire Design 40
Figure 4-3. 1 SEM Path Diagram 91
Figure 4-3. 2 SEM Analysis with Path Coefficient and R2 93
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