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系統識別號 U0026-2001201513320600
論文名稱(中文) 菲律賓以人力招募為主的海外就業政策—以理性選擇制度主義分析
論文名稱(英文) The Philippine Overseas Employment Policy in the Perspective of Labor Recruitment- An Analysis of Rational Choice Institutionalism
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 政治經濟研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Political Economy
學年度 103
學期 1
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 陳俐潔
研究生(英文) Li-Chieh Chen
學號 u16014057
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 167頁
口試委員 指導教授-蒙志成
口試委員-宋鎮照
口試委員-藍於琛
中文關鍵字 菲律賓海外就業政策  菲律賓海外勞工  人力招募制度  理性選擇制度主義  交易成本 
英文關鍵字 Philippine Overseas Employment Policy  Filipino Overseas Worker  recruitment institution  Rational Choice Institutionalism  transaction cost 
學科別分類
中文摘要 菲律賓為全球當前主要的人力資源輸出國之一,伴隨每年不斷攀升的海外就業人數,刺激海外匯款回流的金額,自2001年以降,海外匯款總額幾乎占菲國10%的GDP比重,並為活絡菲國內消費市場的重要經濟來源。此一由海外就業政策所造就的經濟表現,引發本研究欲探究菲律賓海外就業政策下的運作機制。尤其菲律賓在人力招募的實務經驗中,已建立一套相對完善的人力招募運作制度,由此引發本研究欲探析人力招募制度在菲律賓內部何以會呈現以人力仲介為主的運作模式。
本論文從制度分析的角度切入,採取理性選擇制度主義的研究途徑,透過整理自North的理論觀點中的三角互動架構,作為制度分析的重要工具。而三角架構的分析方法,則是針對人力招募制度下的三個主要行為者(菲政府、人力仲介、海外勞工),分別在組成制度的四個機制面向(資訊、監督、制裁、調適)中,解析其互動關係下的交易成本。具體的研究方式,主要是以文獻分析並輔以訪談資料作為分析的素材,從中建構人力招募的制度結構,以及瞭解三角架構中個別行為方對於目標立場的認知,而理性選擇便是透過行動者作出符合其目標利益的行為模式,以期降低互動過程中的交易成本。
有關本文在四個機制面向的交易成本分析結果發現,三個行為者並未皆能在既有的四個機制中,充分降低其交易成本。首先,資訊機制呈現出資訊不對等的互動關係;而監督機機制則礙於勞工必須負擔更高的監督成本,而缺乏監督仲介違法招募人力的動機。制裁機制所產生的效果有限,在於仲介所需負擔的被制裁成本,並不致遏止其繼續作出不法的人力招募行為,同時藉此最大化其經濟利益。最後,隨著海外市場的需求變化及菲國人力流動漸趨普及,仲介透過其較佳的調適效率與資訊工具,對於其他兩方行為者所能提供的調適協助越顯著,導致調適機制的三角互動為不對稱互賴的局面。相較於菲政府及海外就業勞工,人力仲介所掌握的資訊工具,更有助於其降低在四個機制面向的交易成本。其中,人力仲介藉與海外仲介的合作關係,率先取得海外就業資訊;在人力招募必須取決於海外勞務需求市場的情況下,奠定了菲政府及勞工對仲介資訊依賴的互動本質。換句話說,菲律賓海外就業政策下所執行的人力招募模式,最終會形成以人力仲介為主的制度,主因在於仲介利用資訊工具所引發在四個機制的相對影響力,可以使三角互動在既有制度結構下,相對降低交易成本的重要因素。
總的來說,由四個機制的狀態間接說明了,菲律賓的人力招募制度並未臻RCI理論所定義之制度效益最大化的階段。而海外就業政策所帶來的經濟表現,伴隨著不同制度面向的效益改進,可能尚有持續帶動菲律賓經濟成長的空間。
英文摘要 The Philippines is one of the major countries of origin of labor migration around the world. The remittances inflow from Filipino Overseas Workers (OFWs) is contributive to Philippines’ economic growth by stimulating its domestic consumption market, and decrease its pressure from foreign debt. Under the Philippine overseas employment policy (POEP), the Philippines had set up a relatively complete system for recruiting the potential labor to work abroad. So, how do the recruitment institutions function to keep the mobility of OFWs and steady increase of remittances?
This study will utilize Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) approach to seek theoretical explanation. My RCI analysis argues that the calculation of minimizing transaction costs among actors determine the form and operation of the Philippine oversea employment policy. Three crucial actors— the government, recruitment agency, and OFW play substantial roles in the RCI model. Furthermore, I deconstruct the recruitment institution from four aspects of collective mechanisms with the triangular structure.
The research results indicate that the private agency impose more influence on two other players under the institutional framework because of its preempting the supply-demand information of labor markets. The employment information, however, is prerequisite to determine whether to launch the labor recruiting further. From the viewpoint of RCI, the Government and OFWs could decrease their transaction cost while benefiting from these kind of interactions with agencies.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 I
SUMMARY III
誌謝 VII
表目錄 X
圖目錄 X
ACRONYMS XI
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究問題 7
第三節 研究範圍與限制 7
第四節 章節安排 10

第二章 文獻回顧 13
第一節 海外就業政策之相關研究 13
第二節 新制度主義理論下的理性選擇制度主義途徑 16
第三節 交易成本與交換關係 24
第四節 集體行動的四個制度面向 26
第五節 菲律賓勞務輸出政策之發展 30
第六節 菲律賓勞務輸出政策之法規沿革 35

第三章 研究設計 43
第一節 研究架構 43
第二節 研究命題 48
第三節 研究方法 48
第四節 研究流程 57

第四章 人力招募制度的結構 59
第一節 人力招募的實際運作與制度結構 59
一、 人力招募過程概述 61
二、 三角互動與制度的分析面向 76
第二節 三角互動架構分析 78
一、 菲律賓政府 78
二、 人力仲介 84
三、 海外勞務人員 90
四、 小結 93

第五章 人力招募制度的交易成本分析 96
第一節 人力招募的四個機制面向 96
一、 資訊機制的交易成本分析 96
二、 監督機制的交易成本分析 102
三、 制裁機制的交易成本分析 112
四、 調適機制的交易成本分析 118
第二節 三角互動的制度關係 125
第三節 小結 129

第六章 結論 131
第一節 四個制度面向的分析結果 131
第二節 研究摘述 136
第三節 研究結果檢討 138
第四節 政策建議 140
第五節 後續研究建議 142

參考文獻 144
附錄 152
附錄一 訪談內容大綱 152
附錄二 訪談同意須知 154
附錄三 菲律賓勞工中心訪談紀錄 156
附錄四 台灣聯合直聘中心訪談紀錄 160
附錄五 勞動契約範本 163
附錄六 海外就業證明(OEC) 166
附錄七 PDOS參與證明 167
附錄八 仲介費收據範例 167


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