||Potential of Biological N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP) Removal in Semiconductor Wastewater under Aerobic, Anoxic and Anaerobic Conditions
||Department of Environmental Engineering
||Natalia Diani Triana
The thriving growth of semiconductor industry in this digital era is also accompanied by increase of dangerous wastewater produced containing high concentration of organic compounds, including NMP which generally takes part as photoresist stripper solvent. Even though previously NMP was considered as benign alternative and has no severe risk to environment, but later was found as reproductive and developmental toxin. In this study, potential of biological NMP removal from semiconductor wastewater using aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions was evaluated. Laboratory scale of aerobic MBR system was developed to resemble real wastewater treatment plant condition. Additionally, several batch assays were also conducted to evaluate behaviors of NMP removal process in each conditions with different initial concentrations. Stable and effective removal of NMP as high as 99% was successfully achieved using aerobic MBR as well as in aerobic batch experiment. Moreover, this removal process of NMP apparently could be reach up to mineralization process. Higher tolerance to higher NMP loading was also shown in this condition compared to others. Nevertheless, great potential of NMP removal was also shown in anoxic condition, especially in low concentration, and faster NMP degradation rate for each subsequent runs could be achieved. On the other hand, in this study, biological NMP removal could not be effectively achieved in anaerobic condition. Despite of the effectiveness, some limitations shown in each aerobic and anoxic conditions. In aerobic, presence of NMP inhibited nitrification process (total inhibition possibly occurred in high NMP loading) which therefore followed by ammonia accumulation. Meanwhile, in anoxic conditions some intermediates that could not be further biologically removed might remained in system, which indicated different NMP degradation pathway between aerobic and anoxic condition possibly occurred.
LIST OF CONTENT v
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 3
2.1 Semiconductor Wastewater 3
2.2 NMP Usage 4
2.3 NMP Biodegradation 6
2.4 Membrane Bioreactor 10
2.5 Nitrogen 13
2.5.1. Nitrogen Cycle 13
2.5.2. Ammonification 15
2.5.3. Nitrification 16
2.5.4. Denitrification 17
CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 19
3.1 Semiconductor Wastewater 19
3.2 Operational Condition of Aerobic Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) 21
3.3 Batch Assays 23
3.3.1. Aerobic Condition 24
3.3.2. Anoxic Condition 25
3.3.3. Anaerobic Condition 27
3.4 Analytical Methods 29
3.4.1. General Chemical Analytical Methods 29
3.4.2. Instrumental Analytical Methods 30
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 33
4.1 Aerobic Biological NMP Removal 33
4.1.1. Lab-Scale Biological Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) under Continuous Operation 33
4.1.2. NMP Aerobic Biodegradation Batch Assays 39
4.1.3. Summary of NMP Biological Removal in Aerobic Condition 51
4.2 NMP Anoxic Biodegradation Batch Assays 52
4.3 NMP Anaerobic Biodegradation Batch Assays 70
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 83
5.1. Conclusion 83
5.2. Suggestion 84
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