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系統識別號 U0026-1908201412090900
論文名稱(中文) 以時空資訊探討百年來台南古都沿海地區的土地利用變遷
論文名稱(英文) Land Use Changes of the Coastal Zone of Old Tainan City in the Past Hundred Years by Using Temporal Spatial Information
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 測量及空間資訊學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Geomatics
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 江若慈
研究生(英文) Jo-Tzu Chiang
學號 P66014078
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 77頁
口試委員 指導教授-曾義星
口試委員-范毅軍
口試委員-林春吟
中文關鍵字 土地利用變遷  時空資訊  沿海地區  安平 
英文關鍵字 Land Use Changes  Temporal Spatial Information  Coastal Area  Anping 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台南為台灣最早發展的城市,其沿海地帶曾是台灣政經發展的核心區域,亦可以說是台灣文化的起源。將近四百年前,台南沿海在內陸與外海之間形成一座大潟湖,此潟湖被稱為台江內海;而今滄海桑田,台江內海不但已漸漸陸化,甚至向西岸推進數公里遠,其地理環境變化如此巨大,影響當地人文社會及經濟發展,進而影響了土地利用的轉變。透過時空資訊的紀錄,能幫助我們了解時代變遷之地理現象,並提供我們分析並量化過去的地理環境變化之可能性。

本研究使用從1904年至2011年的時空資訊,包含 (1)古地圖;(2)早期的歷史航照影像;(3)經建版地形圖;(4)衛星影像;(5)正射影像,這些寶貴的空間資料提供我們建立時空地理資訊的可能性,也提供我們將歷史空間對應到現今空間的媒介,然要利用這些影像以及進行後續的應用,必須將這些影像糾正對位到共同的坐標系統上,因此,本研究完成了百年圖資對位處理流程,將蒐集的百年圖資依不同年代分別以空三商業軟體(SOCET GXP 4.0)以及六參數轉換進行糾正對位,以萃取時空地理資訊,並對各年代圖資進行精度評估,以了解圖資之誤差與限制。

由於早期台灣歷史文獻,大多著墨於文字上的敘述,少有地理空間上的呈現,更缺乏歷史文獻中所述史事之地理空間的相互對照,閱讀者往往只能想像歷史事件的空間關係。為瞭解其空間發展的轉變,建立時空地理資訊能有助於釐清地理環境變遷情形,倘若將時空資訊與文史紀錄結合對應,必能成為有利的變遷分析工具。因此,在建立完成時空地理資訊後,我們利用以網路為基礎之同步多視窗瀏覽平台展示及比較各時期之變遷,並且主要以台南古都沿海地區(約今安平一帶)為研究範圍,運用百年圖資探討其土地利用之變遷。本研究將研究區域分為九項土地利用類別來探討,藉由影像判釋與數化來量化土地利用變遷資料,以及透過轉移矩陣了解各土地利用如何轉變,最後配合文史資料進行討論。

研究結果顯示,該區域早期占最大宗的魚塭用地今大幅減少,從土地利用轉移矩陣可得知自1970年代開始魚塭是由大量的被建築用地所取代,水域、鹽田及沙洲的面積相較百年以前,亦有減緩的趨勢,而歷年來農業用地在此區皆非常稀少,在另一方面,裸露地、工業及其他用地自1970年代來則有增加的趨勢。此外,將人文資料對應至時空資訊亦可顯示其與土地利用變遷息息相關。本研究顯示了時空地理資訊有助於長期的土地利用變遷研究,也證明了多時期的時空地理資訊為了解過去變遷的重要資料。
英文摘要 Tainan, the earliest developed city in Taiwan, was the origin of Taiwan’s culture. Nearly 400 years ago, the coastal zone in Tainan connected a large lagoon, called Tai-Jiang Inner Sea. However, the environment has dramatically changed in the past 400 years. The inner sea became land gradually and then the land was extending to the west for a few kilometers. Such changes affected many human activities such as the social activities, economic activities and land use. To comprehend the relation between the changes and the human activities, temporal spatial data are considered as a favorable data source for studying.

The temporal datasets used in this study were acquired from 1904 to 2011, which include: (1) ancient topographic maps; (2) historical aerial images; (3) economic planning and development topographic map; (4) satellite images; (5) ortho-images. These precious temporal datasets provide us the possibility of building the temporal spatial information. However, in order to retrieve these spatial information from the historical images, image registration and rectification should be done. In this study, we present a methodology of processing multi-temporal datasets during the past hundred years employed by commercial software (SOCET GXP 4.0) and a block adjustment with affine transformation. The accuracy of the transformation results and the limitation of each dataset for doing transformation were also assessed and discussed respectively in this paper.

In the past, maps were rarely produced because of the lack of efficient mapping technology. The landscape of the history described in the literature is usually in characters. Combining temporal spatial information and historical literatures is therefore considered great improvements on the changing analysis. Hence, we built a web-based viewing system for the comparison of multi-temporal data. In this study, we additionally focused on land use changes in the coastal zone of old Tainan city (about Anping nowadays). The land use are classified into 9 categories and the changes are evaluated based on the land use categories. Quantification of land use changes is done by manual interpretation and digitization on the temporal datasets. A transition matrix is also utilized to conjecture and explain the land use changes referring to some historical records.

The results of land use changes study reveal that the most significant change was fish ponds that were drastically decreased. From the transition matrix, those disappeared fish ponds were replaced rapidly by built-up land since 1970s. Water zone, salt fields, and sandbars have also decreased in the past hundred years. And agriculture land is scarcely found along the timeline in the study area. On the other hand, the categories of soil, industrial area and others have increased since 1970s. Besides, the humanities data can be linked to the spatial information as well which are close to the land use changes. The results demonstrate that the long-term change analyses are benefited from the temporal spatial information retrieved from the temporal datasets by our methodology.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract III
Acknowledgement V
Contents VI
List of Tables VIII
List of Figures X
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation and objectives 1
1.2 Related works 6
1.3 Research concepts 9
1.4 Thesis framework 10
Chapter 2 Temporal spatial information 12
2.1 Study area 12
2.2 Old maps made by Japanese 13
2.2.1 Taiwan Baotu 13
2.2.2 Topographic maps 14
2.3 Early historical aerial images 16
2.3.1 Aerial images taken by U.S. military 16
2.3.2 Aerial images taken by Taiwan Air Force 18
2.4 Official topographic maps 19
2.5 Modern aerial and satellite images 21
Chapter 3 Methodology 23
3.1 Data process 23
3.2 The registration of old maps 26
3.3 Block adjustment of historical images 28
3.3.1 The first step 31
3.3.2 The second step 32
3.4 Image interpretation 33
3.5 Transition matrix 42
Chapter 4 Results and Analyses 44
4.1 The results of registration and rectification 44
4.1.1 The results of historical aerial images 44
4.1.2 The results of old maps 47
4.2 Multi-temporal viewing window 49
4.3 Digitizing results 51
4.4 The analyses of land use changes 55
4.4.1 The temporal changes of industry 56
4.4.2 The temporal changes of water zone 57
4.4.3 The temporal changes of residential area 58
Chapter 5 Conclusions and suggestions 71
5.1 Conclusions 71
5.2 Suggestions and future works 72
References 73
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