||Land Use Changes of the Coastal Zone of Old Tainan City in the Past Hundred Years by Using Temporal Spatial Information
||Department of Geomatics
Land Use Changes
Temporal Spatial Information
本研究使用從1904年至2011年的時空資訊，包含 (1)古地圖；(2)早期的歷史航照影像；(3)經建版地形圖；(4)衛星影像；(5)正射影像，這些寶貴的空間資料提供我們建立時空地理資訊的可能性，也提供我們將歷史空間對應到現今空間的媒介，然要利用這些影像以及進行後續的應用，必須將這些影像糾正對位到共同的坐標系統上，因此，本研究完成了百年圖資對位處理流程，將蒐集的百年圖資依不同年代分別以空三商業軟體(SOCET GXP 4.0)以及六參數轉換進行糾正對位，以萃取時空地理資訊，並對各年代圖資進行精度評估，以了解圖資之誤差與限制。
Tainan, the earliest developed city in Taiwan, was the origin of Taiwan’s culture. Nearly 400 years ago, the coastal zone in Tainan connected a large lagoon, called Tai-Jiang Inner Sea. However, the environment has dramatically changed in the past 400 years. The inner sea became land gradually and then the land was extending to the west for a few kilometers. Such changes affected many human activities such as the social activities, economic activities and land use. To comprehend the relation between the changes and the human activities, temporal spatial data are considered as a favorable data source for studying.
The temporal datasets used in this study were acquired from 1904 to 2011, which include: (1) ancient topographic maps; (2) historical aerial images; (3) economic planning and development topographic map; (4) satellite images; (5) ortho-images. These precious temporal datasets provide us the possibility of building the temporal spatial information. However, in order to retrieve these spatial information from the historical images, image registration and rectification should be done. In this study, we present a methodology of processing multi-temporal datasets during the past hundred years employed by commercial software (SOCET GXP 4.0) and a block adjustment with affine transformation. The accuracy of the transformation results and the limitation of each dataset for doing transformation were also assessed and discussed respectively in this paper.
In the past, maps were rarely produced because of the lack of efficient mapping technology. The landscape of the history described in the literature is usually in characters. Combining temporal spatial information and historical literatures is therefore considered great improvements on the changing analysis. Hence, we built a web-based viewing system for the comparison of multi-temporal data. In this study, we additionally focused on land use changes in the coastal zone of old Tainan city (about Anping nowadays). The land use are classified into 9 categories and the changes are evaluated based on the land use categories. Quantification of land use changes is done by manual interpretation and digitization on the temporal datasets. A transition matrix is also utilized to conjecture and explain the land use changes referring to some historical records.
The results of land use changes study reveal that the most significant change was fish ponds that were drastically decreased. From the transition matrix, those disappeared fish ponds were replaced rapidly by built-up land since 1970s. Water zone, salt fields, and sandbars have also decreased in the past hundred years. And agriculture land is scarcely found along the timeline in the study area. On the other hand, the categories of soil, industrial area and others have increased since 1970s. Besides, the humanities data can be linked to the spatial information as well which are close to the land use changes. The results demonstrate that the long-term change analyses are benefited from the temporal spatial information retrieved from the temporal datasets by our methodology.
List of Tables VIII
List of Figures X
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation and objectives 1
1.2 Related works 6
1.3 Research concepts 9
1.4 Thesis framework 10
Chapter 2 Temporal spatial information 12
2.1 Study area 12
2.2 Old maps made by Japanese 13
2.2.1 Taiwan Baotu 13
2.2.2 Topographic maps 14
2.3 Early historical aerial images 16
2.3.1 Aerial images taken by U.S. military 16
2.3.2 Aerial images taken by Taiwan Air Force 18
2.4 Official topographic maps 19
2.5 Modern aerial and satellite images 21
Chapter 3 Methodology 23
3.1 Data process 23
3.2 The registration of old maps 26
3.3 Block adjustment of historical images 28
3.3.1 The first step 31
3.3.2 The second step 32
3.4 Image interpretation 33
3.5 Transition matrix 42
Chapter 4 Results and Analyses 44
4.1 The results of registration and rectification 44
4.1.1 The results of historical aerial images 44
4.1.2 The results of old maps 47
4.2 Multi-temporal viewing window 49
4.3 Digitizing results 51
4.4 The analyses of land use changes 55
4.4.1 The temporal changes of industry 56
4.4.2 The temporal changes of water zone 57
4.4.3 The temporal changes of residential area 58
Chapter 5 Conclusions and suggestions 71
5.1 Conclusions 71
5.2 Suggestions and future works 72
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