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系統識別號 U0026-1907201908204000
論文名稱(中文) 考慮參考價格效應之易腐性商品訂價與存貨模型
論文名稱(英文) The Optimal Pricing and Ordering Policy for the Perishable Items with Reference Price Effect
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業與資訊管理學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial and Information Management
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 楊翎
研究生(英文) Ling Yang
學號 r36064053
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 72頁
口試委員 指導教授-王泰裕
口試委員-陳梁軒
口試委員-謝中奇
中文關鍵字 易腐性商品  參考價格效應  訂價與存貨模型 
英文關鍵字 perishable items  reference price effect  pricing and inventory model 
學科別分類
中文摘要 存貨管理為各大產業所關注的一項重要議題,良好的存貨管理可以幫助決策者作出適當的訂購政策。除了存貨管理,訂價策略也會影響利潤,尤其消費者在購買商品時,除了會直接受到商品價格的影響,還會將商品的售價與心中的標準價格作比較,而此價格稱為參考價格。如果商品的售價比參考價格還高時,消費者就會認為購買商品是損失而不願購買商品,使需求下降,因此在訂定商品價格時,也必須將參考價格納入考量。而現實生活中,很多存貨都具有腐敗的特性,此類商品經過一段時間後,因腐敗使得商品越來越不新鮮,導致消費者的購買意願也跟著下降。此外,因商品具時效性,當銷售週期結束後,未賣出的存貨會因剩餘的價值極低而造成浪費和損失。為了去化存貨,零售商通常會在銷售期結束前,利用折扣的方式來刺激需求,以提升整體利潤,而對零售商而言,折扣的程度應設為多少,才能讓整體利潤最大化,會是零售商想得知的。
針對以上情境,本研究建立一個考量參考價格效應的易腐性商品訂價與存貨模型,將銷售週期分成四個階段,各階段時間長度為已知,並於第四階段以折扣方式販售商品,探討折扣多少和訂購多少量能讓零售商利潤最大化。以四種蔬果類商品的例子來驗證模型,再進行敏感度分析。分析結果發現單位購買成本、原始價格、初始參考價格、需求函數中的其他參數和第三與第四階段時間長度對利潤影響較明顯,若想提高利潤可從這些參數進行調整,達到銷售收入增加,成本減少的效果。
英文摘要 Pricing and inventory management of perishable items are crucial to the retailers. Unlike durable products, the quality and quantities of perishable items deteriorate over time. Owing to the decline of the freshness condition, the demand may decrease, which could decrease the profit as well. Accordingly, a proper pricing and ordering strategy is needed to have higher profit for the enterprises. Generally, the retailers may offer price discounts before the selling period ends so that the sales volume can be boosted and reduce the ending inventory. In order to set a price that consumers are willing to pay for, the retailers have to take individuals’ reference price into consideration. Therefore, in this study, a single period with four stages pricing and inventory model is implemented to determine the optimal price markdown and inventory ordering policy to maximize the total profit. In our model, the demand is dependent on the price, reference price and time since they are the major factors affecting the demand. Also, we use the three-parameter Weibull function as the deterioration rate function in our model. Finally, a numerical example is presented to demonstrate this model accompanied by sensitivity analysis. Some managerial insights are obtained from the results, which will assist the retailer in improving the profit.
論文目次 摘要 I
致謝 VIII
目錄 IX
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 研究假設與限制 4
第四節 研究流程 5
第五節 論文架構 6
第二章 文獻探討 7
第一節 易腐性存貨 7
第二節 訂價與存貨模型 14
第三節 參考價格效應 17
第四節 小結 22
第三章 考慮參考價格效應之易腐性商品訂價與存貨模型 23
第一節 問題描述 23
第二節 模型假設與參數符號 25
第三節 模型建構 30
第四節 模型求解 40
第五節 小結 42
第四章 模型驗證與分析 44
第一節 問題情境說明 44
第二節 參數設定 45
第三節 結果與分析 51
第四節 小結 64
第五章 結論與建議 66
第一節 研究結論 66
第二節 未來研究方向 67
參考文獻 69
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