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系統識別號 U0026-1907201314213000
論文名稱(中文) 利用GPS觀測地震和海嘯對電離層的影響
論文名稱(英文) Observations of traveling ionospheric disturbance triggered by earthquakes and tsunamis using GPS
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 陳威翰
研究生(英文) Wei-Han Chen
學號 l46004068
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 72頁
口試委員 指導教授-林建宏
召集委員-蔡和芳
口試委員-樂鍇‧祿璞崚岸
中文關鍵字 電離層  移行擾動  地震  海嘯 
英文關鍵字 ionosphere  STID  earthquake  tsunami 
學科別分類
中文摘要 地震發生時會使地表產生錯動甚至會引發海嘯。地震與海嘯的垂直震盪會以聲重波(Acoustic-gravity wave)的形式傳到電離層電漿產生移行電離層擾動現象(Seismo-traveling ionospheric disturbance,STID)。利用GPS訊號可得知電離層電漿全電子含量(total electron content,TEC),了解電離層的擾動情形。
 2011年3月11日在日本東北外海發生一規模9.0的地震並引發海嘯,利用GPS觀測到的移行電離層擾動現象並配合小波分析(wavelet analysis),研究其地震與海嘯對電離層影響的時變頻譜特性,發現地震訊號較單純且週期較短,而海嘯訊號較複雜且週期較長。利用此方法分析不同事件如2004年南亞、2010年智利和2013所羅門地震等,了解更多地震和海嘯的時變頻譜特徵。而頻譜研究中發現,電離層中的海嘯擾動訊號有比海嘯早到的現象,有機會可發展成另一海嘯預警系統。
英文摘要 In this study, the seismo-traveling ionospheric disturbances (STIDs) in total electron content (TEC) generated by the 2011 Mw9.0 Great Tohoku earthquake at 05:46:23 UT on March 11, 2011, are investigated by using ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver networks. Not only triggered by seismic surface waves the STIDs formed by tsunami waves are clearly seen during the Tohoku earthquake event. A method of wavelet analysis is applied to investigate the spectral characters of STIDs induced by the seismic surface waves and the tsunami waves. Results show that the spectrum of STID resulting by surface waves reveals a single short period enhancement, while those by tsunami waves show multiple long-period responses. Additional events, including 2004 Sumatra(Mw 9.1), 2010 Chile(Mw 8.8) and 2013 Solomon(Mw 8.0) earthquakes, are investigated for the general spectral characteristics of seismic surface and tsunami waves. This results also shows that the arrival time of STID induced by surface waves is earlier than that by tsunami waves, which could be applied as the short-term tsunami warnings.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 X
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 電離層簡介 1
1.2 文獻回顧 4
1.3 研究動機與目的 12
第2章 觀測儀器與分析方法 14
2.1 GPS觀測原理 14
2.2 數位濾波器 19
2.3 小波分析 22
2.4 波源分析 26
第3章 資料分析與觀測結果 29
3.1 近站觀測結果 30
3.2 遠站觀測結果 42
3.3 波源分析結果 58
3.4 海嘯預警系統 62
第4章 結論與未來工作 68
參考文獻 70
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