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系統識別號 U0026-1907201310233400
論文名稱(中文) 應用於廢熱回收與太陽能採集之熱電發電器性能研究
論文名稱(英文) Investigation of Thermoelectric Generator Performance under Waste Heat Recovery and Solar Energy Harvesting
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 機械工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical Engineering
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 王健彰
研究生(英文) Chien-Chang Wang
學號 n18961034
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 116頁
口試委員 指導教授-洪振益
口試委員-李克讓
口試委員-陳朝光
召集委員-吳志陽
口試委員-洪瑞鴻
口試委員-陳維新
口試委員-楊昌中
中文關鍵字 熱電發電器  熱電致冷晶片  有限元素法  散熱設計  幾何設計  可用能分析  廢熱回收  太陽能採集 
英文關鍵字 Thermoelectric Generator (TEG)  Thermoelectric cooler (TEC)  Finite element scheme  Thermal design  Geometric design  Exergy analysis  Waste heat recovery  Solar energy harvesting 
學科別分類
中文摘要 熱電技術由於具有環境友善性且可提供乾淨的能源轉換,近年來已成為受矚目的綠能科技之一。然而熱電元件的最大缺陷是相對較低的能量轉換效率。為了解決此問題,不少研究者選擇經濟又有效的熱源;另一方面,為了進一步推廣綠色能源的概念,因此,有學者研究使用廢熱或太陽能來作為熱電系統的熱源。本研究即是以有限元素法針對四種不同的熱電系統來發展數值模型並探討其性能表現。隨溫度變化的材料性質以及接觸阻抗、熱損失對性能的影響都將考慮在本研究中。系統性能則根據散熱設計與幾何設計來做最佳化。第一個熱電系統中所探討的是結合氣冷散熱系統之熱電發電器,其中性能表現採用兩階段的最佳化方式。研究結果推薦藉由增加散熱鰭片的正面面積以減少散熱鰭片的長度來做為氣冷散熱系統之設計方向。在第二個熱電系統中,則是採用可用能分析來評估各種不可逆性對熱電發電器之性能影響。研究結果顯示對於小電流之應用,減少熱儲溫度或是增加冷儲溫度可以提昇熱電發電器之可用能效率。第三個熱電系統乃是探討熱電發電與致冷整合之系統,也就是說於本系統中,熱電致冷晶片是直接由熱電發電器所驅動。其結果顯示當熱電發電器的晶粒長度改變時,整體系統表現將高度相關於其邊界條件。另一方面,不管熱電發電器的熱面邊界條件為何,當熱電致冷晶片的晶粒長度改變時,總是可以找到最佳的冷卻功率及性能係數。最後的熱電系統則是討論平板集熱之太陽能熱電發電器。在此系統中採用本研究所建立的等效模型來簡化並加速數值模擬的計算。其結果顯示太陽能熱電發電器的性能隨平板基材的面積增加而提昇;然而,冷面在給定的強制對流條件下,性能無法藉由改變熱對流係數來提昇。三種晶粒幾何尺寸中,最小的晶粒搭配90×90 mm2的平板基材面積可獲得最大的系統效率4.15%。而最大晶粒的性能只有在三種晶粒的熱聚比一致時才能顯現其優勢。本研究除可得知熱電系統之運作特性外,並可做為未來熱電系統設計之參考及依據。
英文摘要 Recently, the thermoelectric technology becomes one of the attractive green energy technologies due to its environmental friendliness and clean energy conversion. However, its primary drawback is the low energy conversion efficiency. In order to overcome this obstacle, a proper choice of economic and efficient heat source is crucial. In this aspect, using waste heat or solar energy as the heat source of thermoelectric system is a feasible countermeasure. In this study, numerical models for four kinds of thermoelectric systems are developed by using the finite element scheme to investigate their performances. Temperature-dependent material properties in association with the effects of contact resistance and heat loss on system performance are considered. The system performance is optimized through the thermal design and geometric design. In the first system, the performance of the thermoelectric generator (TEG) in association with an air-cooling system designed using two-stage optimization is investigated. The results show that decreasing the length of the heat sink by increasing its frontal area is the recommended design approach. In the second system, the effects of multi-irreversibilities on TEG performance are evaluated using exergy analysis. The results suggest that when the application of the small electrical current is considered, decreasing the hot-reservoir temperature or increasing the cold-reservoir temperature can improve the exergy efficiency. In the third system, an integrated thermoelectric generation-cooling system is performed where a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is powered directly by a TEG. The results show that when the TEG length is changed, the entire behavior of system performance depends highly on the boundary condition. On the other hand, the maximum distributions of cooling power and coefficient of performance (COP) are exhibited when the TEC length is altered, whether the hot surface of TEG is given by a fixed temperature or heat transfer rate. In the eventual system, the performance of a thermal-concentrated solar TEG is investigated using an equivalent model which is developed to simplify and accelerate the numerical computation. The results show that the performance of the solar TEG can be improved by increasing the substrate area, but that a varying convection heat transfer coefficient under the forced convection condition has a tiny effect on the performance. In the three geometric types, the smallest element with the substrate area of 90×90 mm2 provides the maximum system efficiency of 4.15%, whereas the largest element gives the better performance only when the thermal concentration ratios of the three types are identical. The study not only enables us to figure out the system characteristics of performance, the obtained results are also able to provide useful references for the design of thermoelectric systems.
論文目次 中文摘要 i
Abstract iii
誌謝 v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
List of Figures xi
Nomenclature xvi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of thermoelectrics 1
1.2 Literature review 3
1.2.1 Waste heat recovery using TEG 3
1.2.2 Solar energy application using TEG 4
1.2.3 Integrated thermoelectric generation-cooling system 5
1.2.4 Design of the thermoelectric device 6
1.2.5 Inreversibilities of TEG 8
1.3 Motivation and objective 9
Chapter 2 Theory and Methodology 11
2.1 Physical models and assumptions 11
2.1.1 Physical models 11
2.1.2 Assumptions 14
2.2 Governing equations for thermoelectric system 18
2.3 Boundary conditions 19
2.3.1 TEG incorporated with air-cooling system 19
2.3.2 TEG with multi-irreversibilities 20
2.3.3 Integrated TEG-TEC system 20
2.3.4 Thermal-concentrated solar TEG 21
2.4 Numerical method 23
2.5 Analytical modeling of heat sink 24
2.5.1 Effective heat transfer coefficient of heat sink 24
2.5.2 Power consumption of heat sink 26
Chapter 3 TEG Incorporated with Air-Cooling System 28
3.1 Grid independence and numerical validation 28
3.2 Influence of heat sink geometry (the first-stage optimization) 30
3.3 Compromise programming (second stage of optimization) 39
3.4 Scaling effect on TEG performance 43
Chapter 4 TEG with Multi-Irreversibilities 45
4.1 Numerical validation 46
4.2 Influence of heat loss 49
4.3 Influence of external irreversibilities 52
4.4 Influence of internal irreversibilities 57
Chapter 5 Integrated TEG-TEC System 62
5.1 Numerical validation 63
5.2 Investigation basis 65
5.3 Influence of heat loss and contact resistance on system performance 66
5.4 Influence of TEG element length at a given hot surface temperature of TEG 70
5.5 Influence of TEG element length at a given heat transfer rate of TEG 74
5.6 Influence of TEC element length on system performance 77
Chapter 6 Thermal-Concentrated Solar TEG 84
6.1 Numerical validation 85
6.2 Comparison of real model and equivalent model 86
6.3 Effect of substrate area 89
6.4 Effect of cooling method 96
Chapter 7 Conclusions and Future Work 100
7.1 Conclusions 100
7.1.1 TEG incorporated with air-cooling system: 100
7.1.2 TEG with multi-irreversibilities: 101
7.1.3 Integrated TEG-TEC system: 102
7.1.4 Thermal-concentrated solar TEG: 103
7.2 Future work 104
References 105
自述 115
最近五年著作 116
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