||Evaluation of Eco-efficiency for Roadways
||Department of Civil Engineering
||Tam Thi Thanh Le
In the new trend of sustainable development, eco-efficiency, which is a description of interaction between environment and economy, has emerged as an indicator used for assessing sustainability of products or processes. The aggregation of eco-efficiency indicators is needed to implement the synthesis of existing indicators and to help highlight the significance of eco-efficiency data.
The aim of this study is to develop aggregated eco-efficiency indicators (based on an eco-efficiency analysis method called BASF) of roadways by using a highway project as a case. The aggregated eco-efficiency indicators are calculated and presented in ratios or two-dimension graph as eco-efficiency portfolios. It is useful to provide the results for comparison.
The aggregated eco-efficiency indicators are compared at the project and its component levels for four stages of material production, construction, maintenance, and disposal/recycling. Among the four stages, disposal/recycling stage has the most eco-efficiency with ratio of 9.35 in the case roadway project, while material consumption is the least eco-efficient stage with ratio of 0.16. With regard to component level, the eco-efficiency of the pavement (17.83) is higher than that of the earthwork (4.39) and the bridges (4.9). The total eco-efficiency of the project is 12.27. Moreover, air emission and energy consumption indicators are assessed as the most dominant and the major reasons affecting eco-efficiency.
TABLE OF CONTENT i
LIST OF TABLES iii
LIST OF FIGURES iv
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives 2
1.3 Research Method and Process 2
1.4 Scope and Limitations 3
1.5 Thesis Structure 4
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1 Environmental Performance Measurement 5
2.1.1 Concept and definition 5
2.1.2 Environmental performance 5
2.1.3 Environmental business accounting 7
2.2 Environmental Performance Indicators 9
2.2.1 Concept and definition 9
2.2.2 Models for constructing environmental performance indicators 12
2.2.3 Models for selecting and assessing indicators 15
2.3 Eco-efficiency 17
2.3.1 Eco-efficiency objectives 17
2.3.2 Eco-efficiency analysis 18
2.3.3 BASF eco-efficiency analysis method 19
CHAPTER 3 AGGREGATION OF ECO-EFFICIENCY INDICATORS 23
3.1 Development of Applicable Indicators 23
3.1.1 Environmental performance indicators 23
3.1.2 Value performance indicators 26
3.1.3 Eco-efficiency indicators for roadways 27
3.2 Aggregation of Eco-efficiency Indicators for Roadways 29
3.2.1 Approach to developing aggregated eco-efficiency indicators 29
3.2.2 Steps in eco-efficiency indicator aggregation 30
CHAPTER 4 ECO-EFFICIENCY ASSESSMENT 36
4.1 Selection of Eco-efficiency Indicators 36
4.1.1 Procedure for selecting eco-efficiency indicators 36
4.1.2 Criteria for selecting eco-efficiency indicators 37
4.2 Assessment of Eco-efficiency Indicators 40
4.2.1 Priority ranking of eco-efficiency indicators 40
4.2.2 Severity ranking of eco-efficiency indicators 44
4.2.3 Procedure of assessing eco-efficiency indicators 45
CHAPTER 5 CASE PROJECT STUDY 48
5.1 Eco-efficiency Aggregation for Hannoi – Langson Highway Project 48
5.1.1 Eco-efficiency aggregation at project level 48
5.1.2 Eco-efficiency aggregation at component level 59
5.2 Eco-efficiency Assessment for HL Highway Project 63
5.2.1 Eco-efficiency assessment at project level 63
5.2.2 Eco-efficiency assessment at component level 65
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS 67
6.1 Conclusions 67
6.2 Research Contributions 68
6.3 Suggestions for Future Research 68
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