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系統識別號 U0026-1907201215483700
論文名稱(中文) 脈衝雷射於接觸式球鏡及金屬薄板間之塑性變形研究
論文名稱(英文) The plastic deformation of the thin metallic plate by a pulsed laser on a contact ball-lens
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 機械工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical Engineering
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 吳建霖
研究生(英文) Jian-Lin Wu
學號 N16991685
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 122頁
口試委員 指導教授-林震銘
口試委員-蘇演良
口試委員-陳鐵城
中文關鍵字 脈衝雷射  接觸球鏡  金屬成型 
英文關鍵字 Pulsed laser  Contact ball-lens  Metal forming 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文主要係探討脈衝雷射於接觸式球鏡作用下,引發金屬薄板塑性變形之研究。實驗方面,使用具有高斯模態之Nd-YAG雷射作為加工熱源,以離焦方式進行金屬薄板之成型加工,並藉由壓電轉換器(PZT)及荷重感測器,量測成型過程中,因雷射所引發之應力波與三維運動平台所施加之z軸預壓應力,建立一系列之製程參數,討論影響金屬薄板成型的主要因素。
數值分析分為兩個部分,首先,使用光學設計軟體ZEMAX,確認雷射光學系統之可行性,計算加工過程雷射之光斑尺寸並與實驗作比較。第二部分,利用有限元素軟體ABAQUS,建立二維軸對稱模型以熱機非偶合之分析方式,預測雷射成型期間之製程溫度、應力、應變及變形場。
本研究結果顯示,光學方面,雷射光斑尺寸會因焦長及脈衝作用時間增加而擴大,而功率密度則會隨焦長增加而降低;熱傳方面,雷射引發之溫度分佈會隨著功率及脈衝作用時間增加而增加,但試件厚度增加不影響最後的熱傳分析結果;金屬成型方面,試件之成形輪廓會隨著雷射功率、脈衝作用時間及預壓應力之增加而變大,但會因厚度增加而減小,且隨著不同負載條件的變化,兩種負載同時施加造成的變形會是單純一種負載引發變形的數倍不等。
英文摘要 The aim of this study is to investigate the plastic deformation of the thin metallic plate by a pulsed laser on a contact ball-lens numerically and experimentally. In the numerical analysis, the feasibility of the laser optical system was verified by the software ZEMAX. The computational results of the spot size were compared with the experimental results. Furthermore the finite element method (FEM) was applied to simulate the two-dimensional model of the thermal-mechanical laser forming process.

In the experiment, a metallic plate was irradiated by a Nd-YAG laser through a ball-lens with Gaussian mode. The stress wave induced by the pulsed laser and the preload generated by the contact ball-lens were measured by piezoelectric transducer (PZT) and load cell simultaneously.

The experimental and numerical results shows that the plate deformation increases with the laser power, pulse duration and preload, but decreases with the increase of the plate thickness. With various preload conditions, it can be found that the plate deformation induced by both laser irradiation and preload was several times larger than the deformation induced by preload only.
論文目次 摘要.................................................... Ⅰ
Abstract............................................... Ⅱ
誌謝.................................................... Ⅲ
目錄.................................................... IV
表目錄.................................................. IX
圖目錄.................................................. XI
符號說明................................................ XV

第一章 緒論............................................. 1
1-1研究目的............................................ 1
1-2文獻回顧.......................................... 2
1-2.1雷射成形相關文獻.............................. 2
1-2.2雷射引發應力波之研究................................. 8
1-2.3球鏡應用於雷射成型之研究.......................... 10
1-3本文架構.......................................... 14

第二章 相關理論.......................................... 15
2-1光壓現象............................................. 15
2-2折射定律............................................. 17
2-2.1平行光束入射球鏡.....................................19
2-2.2具有擴散角之高斯光束入射球鏡.................... 20
2-3雷射照射於金屬表面引發之溫度分佈.........................21
2-4雷射引發金屬薄板產生殘留應力與變形之定性描述..............25
2-5 雷射成形近似理論......................................27
2-6赫茲(Hertz)接觸力學....................................30
2-6.1彈性接觸............................................31
2-6.2彈塑性接觸.....................................32

第三章 數值分析...........................................34
3-1雷射成型光路概述.......................................34
3-2光學設計軟體簡介....................................35
3-3 ZEMAX範例驗證.....................................35
3-4 ZEMAX分析結果.....................................36
3-5數值模型分析.......................................41
3-6數值分析之基本假設..................................41
3-6.1 熱傳模式之基本假設............................41
3-6.2 力學模式之基本假設............................42
3-7使用ABAQUS建模及試件幾何尺寸.........................43
3-8材料性質...........................................44
3-9雷射熱源條件.......................................46
3-10數值分析之邊界條件.................................47
3-10.1熱傳模式之邊界條件............................47
3-10.2力學模式之邊界條件............................48
3-11 ABAQUS分析結果...................................49
3-11.1 熱傳分析結果................................ 49
3-11.2 不同脈衝作用時間之熱傳分析....................51
3-11.3 不同試件厚度之熱傳分析....................... 53
3-11.4 力學分析結果................................ 54
3-11.5不同負載引發試件變形之趨勢比較..................58
3-11.6 雷射熱負載造成的變形......................... 61
3.11.7 機械負載造成的變形............................62
3-11.8 兩種負載同時施加(相同機械負載、不同熱負載).......63
3-11.9 兩種負載同時施加(相同熱負載、不同機械負載)......64
3-11.10 不同試件厚度的變形.......................... 66
3-12 結果與討論........................................67

第四章 實驗..............................................69
4-1雷射成形實驗配置及步驟...............................69
4-2雷射成型力之量測設備.................................72
4-3雷射引發應力波之量測.................................73
4-3.1焦長與應力波之關係............................. 74
4-3.2雷射脈衝作用時間與應力波之關係..................76
4-3.3預壓應力與應力波之關係......................... 80
4-4雷射引發金屬薄板成形描述............................ 81
4-5紅光對位技術...........................................82
4-6量測基準長之選定................................... 83
4-7雷射成形實驗結果....................................84
4-7.1不同負載引發試件變形之趨勢比較.................. 84
4-7.2雷射熱負載造成的變形........................... 86
4-7.3機械負載造成的變形.............................88
4-7.4兩種負載造成的變形(相同熱負載、不同預壓應力)...... 89
4-7.5兩種負載造成的變形(相同預壓應力、不同熱負載)...... 91
4-7.6不同試件厚度的變形............................. 92
4-7.7 不同邊界條件的變形(底部固定)................... 94
4-8實驗與數值分析結果比較.............................. 96

第五章 綜合討論與建議..................................... 102
5-1綜合討論.......................................... 102
5-2 影響金屬薄板變形之因素............................. 106
5-3未來發展與建議.........................................107
參考文獻.................................................109

附錄A................................................... 112
附錄B....................................................114
附錄C................................................... 120
自述.................................................... 122
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