||Making Thinking Visible from Book Knowledge to Practically Competitive Competencies:
Evidence from Penghu Education System
||Department of Business Administration
perceived ease of learning
This study was intended to investigate the impact of perceived ease of learning, project participation, and playfulness on learning attitude, competence acquisition, and satisfaction. Artwork developed by 105 fifth and sixth graders, who received innovative curricula and teaching approaches, from Niaoyu, Her-Herng and Dongwei primary schools in Penghu was gathered and analyzed. An experimental design was developed, and the subjects were divided into control (Jibei Primary School) and experimental groups (Niaoyu Primary School). The results proved that the experimental group exhibited significant differences in terms of perceived ease of learning, project participation, playful learning attitude, competence acquisition, and satisfaction as compared to the control group. Furthermore, the results of the structural equation modeling for the sample of 105 students showed that ease of learning, project participation, and playfulness significantly and positively affect learning attitude. Furthermore, learning attitude was verified to have significantly positive connections between learning attitude and competence acquisition. Moreover, heterogeneous competences acquisition from the interactive curricula were found to have a positive influence on learning satisfaction. Finally, competence acquisition was shown to act as a mediator between learning attitude and satisfaction. Three contributions were found this study. First, we proved that perceived ease of learning, project participation, and playfulness act as important agents on improving learning attitude in students. Second, we found that open innovation is the crucial driving force that makes teachers continuously work on developing innovative teaching methods and expands their social network. Third, the experiences with receiving the innovative curricula support the building of a solid foundation for acquiring both functional and behavioral competence at an early age that will create a powerful cornerstone for the future careers of students.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents V
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Research background and motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives 4
1.3 Research Procedure 5
1.4 The Structure of the Study 6
2. Theoretical background 8
2.1 Open innovation 8
2.2 Theoretical background of education 9
2.3 Teaching Approaches 11
2.4 Meta-cognition 14
2.5 The Technology Acceptance Model 15
2.5.1 Perceived ease of learning 16
2.5.2 Play 16
2.5.3 Project 17
2.5.4 Attitude 18
2.5.5 Competence acquisition 18
2.5.6 Satisfaction 19
3. Research Model and Methodology 21
3.1 Design-based Research 21
3.2 Case Introduction 21
3.3 Conceptual Framework and Construct Measurement 22
3.4 Pilot Study 24
3.5 Sampling and Data Analysis Methods 25
3.6 Procedures 26
3.7 Instruction strategies 29
4. Results and analysis 30
4.1 Interviews with teachers & students 30
4.2 Validity and Reliability 32
4.3 Results and Research Model 34
5. Conclusions 38
5.1 The influence of an interactive learning environment on education 38
5.2 The role of open innovation in school curriculum design in Taiwan 41
5.3 The effectiveness of innovative curricula on future competence training 47
5.4 Limitations and future studies 48
List of Tables
Table 1. Construct measurements 23
Table 2. Validity and Reliability 24
Table 3. An example procedure for each stage of project completion 28
Table 4. Timeline of activities and outcomes at Her-Herng Primary school 29
Table 5. The results of interviews with students (n=15) 31
Table 6. The individual results of interviews with students (n=15) 31
Table 7. Results of t-test for perceived ease of learning 33
Table 8. Results of t-test for playfulness 33
Table 9. Results of the t-test for project participation 33
Table 10. Results of t-test for attitude 33
Table 11. Results of t-test for competence acquisition 34
Table 12. Results of t-test for learning satisfaction 34
Table 13. Discriminant validity 35
Table 14. Regression for attitude, competence acquisition, and satisfaction 36
Table 15. Regressions of the influence of learning attitude on competence acquisition 36
Table 16. Results of Hypotheses 37
Table 17. The differences between traditional and project-based learning 46
List of Figures
Figure 1. The Flow Chart of this Research 6
Figure 2. The open concept of curriculum design 9
Figure 3. The research model for the elementary school 23
Figure 4. Pictures of students engaging in project-based learning 27
Figure 5. Experimental procedure for the primary schools in Penghu 28
Figure 6. The framework of this study 37
Figure 7. An example of an open module curriculum design 40
Figure 8. The open concept for future curriculum design 44
Figure 9. Promotors in the network community 44
Figure 10. The procedures for open curriculum design 45
Figure 11. Creative knowledge spiral and competence acquisition 48
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