||Integrating Critical Thinking into Online Adaptive English Instruction
||Graduate Institute of Education
Critical thinking (CT)
adaptive English instruction
本研究旨在探討在Moodle 系統下，批判思考融入適性化英語教學後，學生在批判思考技巧、意向及英文識讀能力之有效性。本研究採單組前後測實驗做為研究設計的方法。參加實驗的研究對象為選修成功大學「數位英語學習與思考訓練」通識課的83 名大學生，進行為期12 週的實驗教學。自變項為在批判思考融入線上適性化英語教學。四個依變項則為學生在批判思考技巧、意向以及三組不同程度（初、中、高）之英文識讀能力的成就表現。本研究使用t 考驗來測量學生接受了批判性思考融入線上適性化英語教學的課程後，批判思考技巧及意向上，是否有所提升。另外，亦使用二因子混合設計的ANCOVA 來分析學生的英語識讀能力上是否有所提升。研究結果顯示：
三-4. 寫作能力高級的學生在Moodle 系統下，接受批判思考融入適性化英語教學之高級課程後，學習者在英語寫作有顯著提升。
三-5. 寫作能力中級的學生在Moodle 系統下，接受批判思考融入適性化英語教學之高級課程後，學習者在英語寫作有顯著提升。
三-6. 寫作能力初級的學生在Moodle 系統下，接受批判思考融入適性化英語教學之高級課程後，學習者在英語寫作有顯著提升。
Critical thinking (CT) and English literacy are essential competencies that students must develop for success in the 21st century. This study examined the effectiveness of integrating critical thinking (CT) into adaptive English literacy instruction in Moodle system. The study involved 83 students enrolled in a general course at the university over a 12-week period. Data collected from students’ critical thinking skills (CTS), critical thinking disposition (CTD), and their improvement of English literacy in the three levels (Advanced, Intermediate, and Basic groups). The result showed that integrating CT into adaptive English courses improved students’ CT performance. The finding also indicated that adaptive literacy instruction in Moodle system promoted students’ English literacy. Importantly, three adaptive approaches, including online adaptive grouping system, adaptive learning materials, and adaptive individualized feedback meet the different needs of individual students’ English learning. The study concluded that integrating CT into online adaptive English instruction could improve both the CTS and CTD of learners and the overall situation of English learning and teaching.
The results of this study were as follow:
1. Students who receive online adaptive English instruction integrated with CT demonstrated improvement in CTS, including analysis, inference, evaluation, induction, and deduction.
2. Students who receive online adaptive English instruction integrated with CT demonstrated partial improvement in CTD, including openmindedness, CT self-confidence, and maturity of judgment.
3. Students who receive different levels of online adaptive English instruction integrated with CT demonstrated improvement in English literacy.
3-1. Students with advanced reading level who received advanced online adaptive English instruction with CT integrated demonstrated improvement in English reading.
3-2. Students with intermediate reading level who received intermediate online adaptive English instruction with CT integrated demonstrated improvement in English reading.
3-3. Students with basic reading level who received basic online adaptive English instruction with CT integrated demonstrated improvement in English reading.
3-4. Students with advanced writing level who received advanced online adaptive English instruction with CT integrated demonstrated improvement in English writing.
3-5. Students with intermediate writing level who received intermediate online adaptive English instruction with CT integrated demonstrated improvement in English writing.
3-6. Students with basic writing level who received basic online adaptive English instruction with CT integrated demonstrated improvement in English writing.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ······················································································· I
LIST OF TABLES ·············································································· IX
LIST OF FIGURE ·············································································· XI
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION ······················································· 1
Motivation ·················································································· 1
Critical Thinking (CT) ······························································ 1
English Learning ····································································· 3
Integrating Critical Thinking with English Learning ··························· 6
Adaptive Instruction in Moodle System ·········································· 7
Purpose of the Study ····································································· 11
Definition of Key Terms ································································· 12
Critical Thinking (CT) ····························································· 12
English Literacy ····································································· 13
Integrating CT into Adaptive English learning instruction ··················· 14
Adaptive Instruction in Moodle system ········································· 14
Overview of Chapters ···································································· 15
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW ············································· 16
Overview ··················································································· 16
Critical Thinking (CT) ··································································· 16
Critical Thinking Instruction ···························································· 19
Adaptive English Instruction ···························································· 28
CHAPTER THREE METHOD ······························································· 32
Overview ··················································································· 32
Research Design ·········································································· 34
Independent Variable ····································································· 36
Dependent Variables ······································································ 36
Participants ················································································ 37
Research Procedure ······································································· 37
Instructional Design ······································································ 43
Data Collection Instruments ····························································· 57
Data Analysis ·············································································· 61
CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSES ·················································· 62
Overview ··················································································· 62
Descriptive Statistics ····································································· 62
Critical Thinking ·········································································· 65
Critical Thinking Skills ···························································· 65
Critical Thinking Disposition ····················································· 66
English literacy ············································································ 67
Reading ··············································································· 67
Writing ··············································································· 71
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ···················· 76
Overview ··················································································· 76
Summary and Discussion of Research Results ······································· 76
Critical Thinking Skills ···························································· 77
Critical Thinking Dispositions ···················································· 80
English literacy ······································································ 83
Limitations of the Study and Recommendations for Future Research ············ 87
Conclusion ················································································· 88
REFERENCE ··················································································· 91
APPENDICES ················································································ 101
Appendix A Demographics Survey ··············································· 102
Appendix B Additional Reading Resources ···································· 109
Appendix C CTS Instruction Powerpoint Slides ································ 111
Appendix D CTD Instruction PowerPoint Slides ······························ 125
Appendix E English Instruction PowerPoint Slides ····························129
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II. Chinese Part