進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-1906201121035100
論文名稱(中文) 批判思考融入線上適性化英語教學之研究
論文名稱(英文) Integrating Critical Thinking into Online Adaptive English Instruction
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 教育研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Education
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 林孜芸
研究生(英文) ZI-YI LIN
學號 u3697101
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 162頁
口試委員 口試委員-施如齡
口試委員-洪秀婷
指導教授-楊雅婷
中文關鍵字 批判思考  學生英語識讀能力  Moodle 系統  適性化英語課程 
英文關鍵字 Critical thinking (CT)  English literacy  adaptive English instruction  Moodle system 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在探討在Moodle 系統下,批判思考融入適性化英語教學後,學生在批判思考技巧、意向及英文識讀能力之有效性。本研究採單組前後測實驗做為研究設計的方法。參加實驗的研究對象為選修成功大學「數位英語學習與思考訓練」通識課的83 名大學生,進行為期12 週的實驗教學。自變項為在批判思考融入線上適性化英語教學。四個依變項則為學生在批判思考技巧、意向以及三組不同程度(初、中、高)之英文識讀能力的成就表現。本研究使用t 考驗來測量學生接受了批判性思考融入線上適性化英語教學的課程後,批判思考技巧及意向上,是否有所提升。另外,亦使用二因子混合設計的ANCOVA 來分析學生的英語識讀能力上是否有所提升。研究結果顯示:
一、 學生接受批判思考線上融入適性化英語教學後,學習者的批判思考技巧在所有分向度上皆有顯著進步。
二、 學生接受批判思考融入線上適性化英語教學後,在批判思考意向方面,學習者僅有在心胸開放、批判思考的信心以及認知成熟三個分向度上,有顯著提升。
三、 學生接受批判思考融入線上適性化英語教學後,不同程度(初、中、高)學習者英語識讀能力有顯著提升。
三-1. 閱讀能力高級的學生接受批判思考融入線上適性化英語教學之高級課程後,學習者在英語閱讀有顯著提升。
三-2. 閱讀能力中級的學生接受批判思考融入線上適性化英語教學之中級課程後,學習者在英語閱讀有顯著提升。
三-3. 閱讀能力初級的學生接受批判思考融入線上適性化英語教學之初級課程後,學習者在英語閱讀有顯著提升。
三-4. 寫作能力高級的學生在Moodle 系統下,接受批判思考融入適性化英語教學之高級課程後,學習者在英語寫作有顯著提升。
三-5. 寫作能力中級的學生在Moodle 系統下,接受批判思考融入適性化英語教學之高級課程後,學習者在英語寫作有顯著提升。
三-6. 寫作能力初級的學生在Moodle 系統下,接受批判思考融入適性化英語教學之高級課程後,學習者在英語寫作有顯著提升。
英文摘要 Critical thinking (CT) and English literacy are essential competencies that students must develop for success in the 21st century. This study examined the effectiveness of integrating critical thinking (CT) into adaptive English literacy instruction in Moodle system. The study involved 83 students enrolled in a general course at the university over a 12-week period. Data collected from students’ critical thinking skills (CTS), critical thinking disposition (CTD), and their improvement of English literacy in the three levels (Advanced, Intermediate, and Basic groups). The result showed that integrating CT into adaptive English courses improved students’ CT performance. The finding also indicated that adaptive literacy instruction in Moodle system promoted students’ English literacy. Importantly, three adaptive approaches, including online adaptive grouping system, adaptive learning materials, and adaptive individualized feedback meet the different needs of individual students’ English learning. The study concluded that integrating CT into online adaptive English instruction could improve both the CTS and CTD of learners and the overall situation of English learning and teaching.
The results of this study were as follow:
1. Students who receive online adaptive English instruction integrated with CT demonstrated improvement in CTS, including analysis, inference, evaluation, induction, and deduction.
2. Students who receive online adaptive English instruction integrated with CT demonstrated partial improvement in CTD, including openmindedness, CT self-confidence, and maturity of judgment.
3. Students who receive different levels of online adaptive English instruction integrated with CT demonstrated improvement in English literacy.
3-1. Students with advanced reading level who received advanced online adaptive English instruction with CT integrated demonstrated improvement in English reading.
3-2. Students with intermediate reading level who received intermediate online adaptive English instruction with CT integrated demonstrated improvement in English reading.
3-3. Students with basic reading level who received basic online adaptive English instruction with CT integrated demonstrated improvement in English reading.
3-4. Students with advanced writing level who received advanced online adaptive English instruction with CT integrated demonstrated improvement in English writing.
3-5. Students with intermediate writing level who received intermediate online adaptive English instruction with CT integrated demonstrated improvement in English writing.
3-6. Students with basic writing level who received basic online adaptive English instruction with CT integrated demonstrated improvement in English writing.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ······················································································· I
LIST OF TABLES ·············································································· IX
LIST OF FIGURE ·············································································· XI
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION ······················································· 1
Motivation ·················································································· 1
Critical Thinking (CT) ······························································ 1
English Learning ····································································· 3
Integrating Critical Thinking with English Learning ··························· 6
Adaptive Instruction in Moodle System ·········································· 7
Purpose of the Study ····································································· 11
Definition of Key Terms ································································· 12
Critical Thinking (CT) ····························································· 12
English Literacy ····································································· 13
Integrating CT into Adaptive English learning instruction ··················· 14
Adaptive Instruction in Moodle system ········································· 14
Overview of Chapters ···································································· 15
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW ············································· 16
Overview ··················································································· 16
Critical Thinking (CT) ··································································· 16
Critical Thinking Instruction ···························································· 19
Adaptive English Instruction ···························································· 28
CHAPTER THREE METHOD ······························································· 32
Overview ··················································································· 32
Research Design ·········································································· 34
Independent Variable ····································································· 36
Dependent Variables ······································································ 36
Participants ················································································ 37
Research Procedure ······································································· 37
Instructional Design ······································································ 43
Data Collection Instruments ····························································· 57
Data Analysis ·············································································· 61
CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSES ·················································· 62
Overview ··················································································· 62
Descriptive Statistics ····································································· 62
Critical Thinking ·········································································· 65
Critical Thinking Skills ···························································· 65
Critical Thinking Disposition ····················································· 66
English literacy ············································································ 67
Reading ··············································································· 67
Writing ··············································································· 71
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ···················· 76
Overview ··················································································· 76
Summary and Discussion of Research Results ······································· 76
Critical Thinking Skills ···························································· 77
Critical Thinking Dispositions ···················································· 80
English literacy ······································································ 83
Limitations of the Study and Recommendations for Future Research ············ 87
Conclusion ················································································· 88
REFERENCE ··················································································· 91
APPENDICES ················································································ 101
VIII
Appendix A Demographics Survey ··············································· 102
Appendix B Additional Reading Resources ···································· 109
Appendix C CTS Instruction Powerpoint Slides ································ 111
Appendix D CTD Instruction PowerPoint Slides ······························ 125
Appendix E English Instruction PowerPoint Slides ····························129
參考文獻 REFERENCE
I. English Part
Alagozlu, N. (2007). Critical thinking and voice in EFL writing. Asian EFL Journal,9(3), 118-136. Retrieved from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/September_2007_EBook_editions.pdf
Al-Ajlan, A., & Zeden, H. (2008). Why Moodle? Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Workshop on Future Trends of Distributed Computing Systems, FTDCS 2008, Kunming, China, 58-64.
Applebee, A. N. (1984). Writing and reasoning. Review of Educational Research, 54, 577-596.
Abrami, P.C., Bernard, R.M., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Tamin, R., & Surkes, M. (2008). Instructional interventions affecting critical thinking skills and dispositions: A stage one meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 78(4),
Ashton, P. (1988). Teaching higher-order thinking and content: An essential ingredient in teacher preparation. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida.
Astleitner, H. (2002). Teaching critical thinking online. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 29(2), 53-76.
Bailin, S., Case, R., Coombs, J. R., & Daniels, L. B. (1999). Conceptualizing critical thinking. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31(3), 285-302.
Beck, I. (1989). Reading and reason. The Reading Teacher, 42(9), 676-684.
Beyer, B. (1985). Critical thinking: What is it? Social Education, 49(4), 270-276.
Bloom, B.S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of ducational goals. New York: David McKay.
Bloom, P., & Keil, F. C. (2001) Thinking through language. Mind and Language, 16(4), 351–67.
Brandl, K. (2005). Are you ready to "Moodle"? Language Learning & Technology,9(2), 16-23.
Carr, K. S. (1988). How can we teach critical thinking? Childhood Education, 65(2),69-73.
Chambers, J. (1988). Teaching thinking throughout the curriculum—where else?Educational Leadership, 45, 4-6.
Chandler, J. (2003). The efficacy of various kinds of error feedback for improvement in the accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12(3), 267-296.
Collins, C. (1991). Audiotape transcript of Tracy Boyd’s Tutoring Session. Fort Worth, TX: Texas Christian University.
Cooper, J. L. (1995). Cooperative learning and critical thinking. Teaching of Psychology, 22(1), 7-8.
Corich, S. (2005). Is it time to Moodle? In S. Mann & T. Clear (Eds.), The 18th Annual NACCQ Conference (pp. 155-158). Tauranga, New Zealand: NACCQ.
Corno, L., & Snow, R. E. (1986). Adapting teaching to individual differences among learners. In M. Wittrock (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Teaching (pp.605-629). New York, NY: Macmillan.
Davidson, B., & Dunham, R. (1997). Assessing EFL student progress in critical thinking with the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test. JALT Journal, 19(1),43-57.
Dewey, J. (1993). How to think. New York: Prometheus Books.
Dougiamas, M., & Taylor, P. C. (2003). Moodle: Using learning communities to create an open source course management system. Paper presented at the ED-MEDIA 2003, Honolulu, Hawaii. Retrieved from
http://dougiamas.com/writing/edmedia2003/
Ennis, R. H. (1987). A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In J. B. Baron & R.J. Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice
(pp.9-26). New York: Freeman.
Ennis, R. H. (1989). Critical thinking and subject specificity: Clarification and needed research. Educational Researcher, 18(3), 4-10.
Ennis, R. H. (1962). A concept of critical thinking. Harvard Education Review, 32(1),81-111.
Ennis, R. H. (1985). A logical basis for measuring critical thinking skills. Educational Leadership, 43(2), 44-48.
Educational Testing Service Taiwan Representative. (2008). 2008 Asia TOEIC average score ranking. Retrived from
http://www.toeic.com.tw/toeic_news_12.jsp
Educational Testing Service. (2009). Test and score data summary for TOEFL internet-based and paper-based tests. Retrived from http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/test_score_data_summary_2009.pdf
Facione, P. A. (1990b). Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction. Millbrae, CA: TheCalifornia Academic Press.
Facione, P. A. (1990a, 1992). The California critical thinking skills test (CCTST): Form A (1990) and form B (1992). Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press.
Facione, P. A. (2006). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Millbrae, CA: California Academic Press.
Facione, P. A. (2007). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Millbrae, CA: California Academic Press.
Facione, P. A. & Facione, N. C. (1992). The California critical thinking disposition inventory (CCTDI); and the CCTDI test manual. Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press.
Facione, P. A., & Facione, N. C. (1994). Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric. Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press. Retrieved from http://www.insightassessment.com/HCTSR.html.
Facione, P.A., Facione, N.C., & Giancarlo, C.A. (1997). The motivation to think in working and learning. Millbrae, CA: Insight Assessment. Retrieved from http://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/Motivatn_Thnk_Wrk_Lrn_1997.PDF
Facione, P. A., Sanchez, C. A., Facione, N. C. & Gainen, J. (1995). The disposition toward critical thinking. Journal of General Education, 44(1), 1–25.
Field, G. B. (2009). The Effects of the Use of Renzulli Learning on Student Achievement in Reading Comprehension, Reading Fluency, Social Studies, and Science. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 4(1), 29-39.
Fitzgerald, J., & Shanahan, T. (2000). Reading and writing relations and their development. Educational Psychologist, 35(1), 39-50.
Glaser, R. (1972). Individuals and learning: The new aptitudes. Educational Researcher, 1(6), 5.
Halpern, D. (1999) Teaching for critical thinking: Helping college students develop
the skills and dispositions of a critical thinker. New Direction for Teaching and Learning, 80, 69-74.
Halx, M. D., & Reybold, L. E. (2005). A pedagogy of force: Faculty perspectives of critical thinking capacity in undergraduate students. Journal of General Education, 54(4), 293–315.
Hayes, J. R., & Flower, L. S. (1980). Writing as problem solving. Visible Language, 14, 383-399.
Hölbl, M., & Welzer, T. (2010). Students’ feedback and communication habits using Moodle. Electronics and Electrical Engineering, 6(102), 63-66.
Hwa, Y. L., Fook, F. S., Atan, H., Majid, O., & Luan, W.S. (2007). A Study on Different Types of Feedback in a Language Multimedia Courseware. International Journal of Instructional Technology & Distance Education, 4(4), 23-34.
Internet World Stats. (2010). Internet usage statistics-The big picture. Retrieved from http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
Jaehning, W., & Miller, M.L. (2007). Feedback types in programmed instruction: A systematic review. The Psychological Record, 57(4), 219-232.
Keller, J. M. (1997). Motivational design and multimedia. Beyond the novelty effect. Strategic Human Resource Development Review, 1(1), 188-203.
King, A. (1995). Designing the instructional process to enhance critical thinking across the curriculum: Inquiring minds really do want to know: Using questioning to teach critical thinking. Teaching of Psychology, 22 (1), 13-17.
Lai, K., Pratt, K., & Grant, A. (2003). State of the art and trends in distance, flexible, and open learning: A review of the literature. Dunedin, New Zealand: School of
Education, University of Otago.
Liaw, M. L. (2007). Content-Based Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Skills in EFL Context. English Teaching and Learning, 31(2), 45-87.
Maiorana, V. (1991). The road from rote to critical thinking. Community Review, 11, 53-64.
Martin, J. (1983). Stores and scripts in organizational setting. In A. H. Hastdorf & A. M. Isen (Eds.), Cognitive and social psychology (pp. 255-305). New York: Elsevier/ North Holland.
Marzano, R. J., & Pickering, D. J. (1997). Dimensions of learning, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
McBride, R. E., Xiang, R., Wittenburg, D., & Shen, J. (2002). An analysis of preservice teachers’ disposition toward critical thinking: a cross-cultural perspective. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 30(2), 131-140.
McCarty, P. A. (1986). Effects of feedback on the self-confidence of men and women. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 840–847.
McDade, S. A. (1995). Case study pedagogy to advance critical thinking. Teaching of Psychology, 22, 9-10. Retrieved from http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct
= true&db = aph&an = 9504200983
McKeachie, W., Pintrich, P., Yi-Guang, L., & Smith, D. (1986). Teaching and learning in the college classroom: A review of the research literature. Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan.
McLoughlin, C., & Luca, J. (2000). Cognitive engagement and higher order thinking through computer conferencing: We know why but do we know how? Paper presented at the 9th Annual Teaching Learning Forum. Perth: Curtin University
of Technology. Retrieved from
http://lsn.curtin.edu.au/tlf/tlf2000/mcloughlin.html
McPeck, J. (1981). Critical thinking and education. New York: St Martin’s Press.
Mok, J. (2009). From policies to realities: developing students' critical thinking in Hong Kong secondary school English writing classes. A Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 40(3), 262-279.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Mihalca, L., Salden, R. J. C. M.,Corbalan, G., Pass, F., Miclea, M. (2011). Effectiveness of cognitive-load based adaptive instruction in genetics education. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 82-88.
Nagappan, R. (2001). Language teaching and the enhancement of higher-order thinking skills. In W.A. & N. R. Sunga (Eds.), Language curriculum and instruction in multicultural societies – Anthology series 42. Singapore:
SEAMEO Regional Language Center.
National Commission on Writing. (2004). Writing: A Ticket to Work...Or a Ticket Out: A Survey of Business Leaders. New York: College Board.
Nelson Laird, T. F. (2005). College students’ experiences with diversity and their effects on academic self- confidence, social agency, and disposition toward
critical thinking. Research in Higher Education, 46(4), 365-387.
Neenan, M. (2009). Using Socratic questioning in coaching. Journal of Rational Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 27, 249-264.
Nunan, D. (2003). The impact of English as a global language on educational policies and practices in the Asia-Pacific region. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 589-613.
OECD and Statistics Canada. (2000). Literacy in the Information Age, Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Parodi, G. (2007). Reading-writing connections: Discourse-oriented research. Reading and Writing, 20(3), 225-250.
Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2003). Learning for the 21st century: A report and mile guide for 21st century skills. Retrieved from http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/downloads/P21_Report.pdf
Paul, R. W., & Elder, L. (2006). The Thinker’s Guide to the Art of Socratic Questioning. Berkeley, CA: The Foundation for Critical Thinking.
Pearson, P., & Tierney, R. (1984). On becoming a thoughtful reader: Learning to read like a writer. In A. Purves & O. Niles (Eds.), Becoming Readers in a Complex Society (pp. 144-173). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Perkins, D., Jay, E., & Tishman, S. (1993). Beyond abilities: A dispositional theory of thinking. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 39 (1), 1-21.
Persell, C.H. (2004). Using Focused Web-Based Discussion to Enhance Student Engagement and Deep Understanding. Teaching Sociology, 32, 61-78.
Potts, B. (1994). Strategies for teaching critical thinking. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 4(3). Retrieved from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=4&n=3
Rath, L. E., Jonas, A., Rothstein, A., & Wassermann, S. (1967). Teaching of thinking. Theory and application. Columbus, Ohio: Charles Merrill Publishing Company.
Reis, S. M., Eckert, R. D., McCoach, D. B., Jacobs, J. K., & Coyne, M. (2008). Using enrichment reading practices to increase reading fluency, comprehension, and attitudes. Journal of Educational Research, 101(5), 299-314.
Resnick, L. (1987). Education and learning to think. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Robb, T., Ross, S., & Shortreed, I. (1986). Salience of feedback on error and its effect on EFL writing quality. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 83-93.
Siegel, H. (1988). Educating reason: Rationality, critical thinking, and education. New York: Routledge Chapman & Hall.
Simpson, E., & Courtney, M. (2008). Implementation and evaluation of critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 14(6), 449-454.
Stotsky, S. (1991). On developing independent critical Tthinking. Written Communication, 8(2), 193-212.
Suhor, C. (1984). Thinking skills in English—And across the curriculum. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 250693).
Tierney, R. J., Soter, A., O’Flahavan, J. F., & McGinley, W. (1989). The effects of reading and writing upon thinking critically. Reading Research Quarterly, 24 (2), 134-173.
Tishman, S., Jay, E., & Perkins, D. (1993). Teaching thinking disposition: from transmission to enculturation. Theory into Practice, 32, 147-153.
Tishman, S., & Andrade, A. (1999). Thinking dispositions: a review of current theories, practices, and issues. Harvard University, Active Learning Practices for Schools. Retrieved from http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/docs/Dispositions.pdf
Vlastos, G. (1994). Socratic studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Original work published 1934).
Wang, M. C., & Walberg, H. J. (1983). Adaptive instruction and classroom time. American Educational Research Journal, 20(4), 601-626.
Wang, M. C., & Walberg, H. J. (1986). Adapting instruction to individual differences. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.
Wang, M., & Lindvall, C. M. (1984). Individual differences and school learning environments. Review of Research in Education, 11, 161-225.
Waxman, H.C., Wang, M. C., Anderson, K. A., & Walberg, H.J. (1985). Adaptive education and student outcomes: A quantitative synthesis. Journal of Educational Research, 78, 228-236.
Yang, Y.-T. C., & Chou, H.-A. (2008). Beyond critical thinking skills: Investigating the relationship between critical thinking skills and dispositions through different online instructional strategies. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(4), 666-684.
Yang, Y.-T. C., Newby, T. J., & Bill, R. L. (2005). Using Socratic questioning to promote critical thinking skills through asynchronous discussion forums in distance learning environments. American Journal of Distance Education, 19(3),
163-181.
Yeh, Y C. (2004). Nurturing reflective teaching during critical-thinking instruction in a computer simulation program. Computers & Education, 42(2), 181-194.
Yeh, Y. C. (2009). Integrating e-learning into the Direct-instruction Model to enhance the effectiveness of critical-thinking instruction. Instructional Science, 37(2), 185-203.
Zohar, A. (1994). Teaching a thinking strategy: Transfer across domains and self learning versus class-like setting. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 8, 549-563.
II. Chinese Part
林進材(1999)。教學理論與方法。台北:五南圖書出版公司。
魏美惠 (1999)。論情意教學與社會智力。國立教育資料館教育資料與研究,28,40-44
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2021-12-31起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2021-12-31起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw