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系統識別號 U0026-1905202022531600
論文名稱(中文) 將實證老年學、老年醫學知識轉化為兒童繪本:利益相關者參與設計和混合方法研究
論文名稱(英文) Translating evidence-based gerontological and geriatric knowledge into children's picture books:A stakeholder engagement design and mixed method evaluation
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 老年學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Gerontology
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 李嘉瑋
研究生(英文) Chia-Wei Li
學號 TC6071052
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 197頁
口試委員 指導教授-邱靜如
口試委員-張家銘
口試委員-楊琬琳
中文關鍵字 繪本  高齡知識  老年學教育  老年醫學教育  世代理解  相關者為導向的設計 
英文關鍵字 Picture book  aging-related knowledge  gerontology education  geriatric education  generational understanding  stakeholder engagement 
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景
在邁入高齡社會的時代,世代間的理解被認為可以增加雙方的瞭解、友誼、共享和信心,也有研究發現兒童對高齡者的主觀幸福感與在社區的安老有重要影響。但因為年齡,兒童的同理心與吸收知識的能力都尚未成熟,讓兒童接受高齡知識教育的研究極少,要突破這個限制,開發一款合宜的高齡知識的教材,知識不偏離專業,內容反映高齡者的處境,並且適合讓兒童學習可能是加強銀幼理解的契機。
研究目的
目的一:探討兒童高齡知識繪本相關者對繪本的關注重點異同與喜好度。
目的二:評估9到12歲兒童經閱讀相關者導向設計開發之繪本後對高齡知識水準的變化,以及評估兒童的人口學特徵、與高齡者相處的情形、對高齡者的瞭解程度、對繪本的主觀感受等變項對高齡知識水準的分數是否有影響。
目的三:建立可將高齡知識轉化為教材之可行並實用的模型與準則。
研究方法
本研究採用質量性探索型混和序列研究方法,在前期質性開發階段中,藉由相關者為導向的開發方式,開發一系列給兒童觀看的合宜高齡知識教育繪本,並且在後期階段運用量性的單組前後測驗做繪本介入的初步實測。
(1) 質性開發設計:在第一階段依據實證老年醫學、老年學、兒童文學教育理論使原型繪本初步成形後,在第二階段使用相關者為導向的設計方法,用深度訪談與焦點小組的方式,納入三類繪本相關者:專業者 (醫療、教育專家)、利益者 (65歲以上高齡者)與使用者(兒童)的意見,歸納分析不同相關者對繪本的傳遞知識、內容、圖畫以及整體的觀點,並以此作為修正繪本的依據,用以開發一系列高齡知識繪本。
(2) 量性成效檢視:第三階段收案9~12歲兒童,以用相關者為導向的設計方法開發的高齡知識繪本介入,使用單組前後測問卷,評測兒童在接收高齡知識的成效。
研究結果
質性開發階段中,共開發三本高齡知識繪本,分別為跌倒知識領域、營養知識領域以及溝通知識領域。開發過程中,發現相關者為導向的訪談結果內容廣泛,但各族群的建議會帶有其族群特性,不同領域的專業者關注的重點也不一樣,展現不同相關者關注焦點的差異。再者,相關者為導向的訪談內容幾乎都符合相對應的老年醫學以及兒童文學理論,這代表相關者為導向的開發方式不僅可以讓繪本更符合現實的形狀,更能讓繪本更接近理論的要求,也因此提升適用性。量性階段的單組前後測驗中採用無母數的檢定方式,結果呈現在整體的分數前後測驗有顯著差異(p=0.001),單領域分析,只有營養知識領域有顯著差異(p=0.016),是兒童在繪本介入後整體知識提升的重要關鍵。並且發現社區女童可能在一開始就比男童瞭解高齡者(p=0.001),但繪本對男女兒童都有一定的成效,另外發現高年級兒童的繪本介入後知識高於中年級兒童p=0.038,除此之外,包括居住的、有無與高齡者同住、是否瞭解高齡者、以及對繪本的主觀感受等等,都不影響繪本介入前後的知識水準。在兒童對繪本的喜好排名結果中,可以看到越符合兒童文學理論的繪本越是受到青睞。在繪本介入後的簡要訪談中也可以得知,用兒童喜愛的方式呈現知識,可以讓兒童樂於學習並感到有趣。
研究結論
使用探索型混和序列研究,證實經由相關者為導向的方式,可以將老年學、老年醫學實證知識轉換為一款吻合醫療、教育、文學理論,符合專業者的期待與高齡者現況,並適合兒童閱讀,得到樂趣的同時提升其高齡知識水準的高齡知識繪本。研究也發現,在高齡領域中,將所有不同面向的相關者納入開發計畫中可以使其各方面的考量更完整、激發更好的潛能,並提供一個讓理論與現實交匯與激盪的空間,開創高齡領域與世代理解的更多可能性。
英文摘要 The research aim of study is to design a series of picture books featuring the elderly to provide accurate and children-friendly gerontological and geriatric knowledge with stakeholder engagement design, and therefore to improve the gerontological and geriatric knowledge of children. By adopting the exploratory sequential mixed methods design, we found that suggestions of each stakeholder groups with different fields where related to their own background characteristics. It was also found that the stakeholder engagement design method can not only make the picture books more realistic shape but also make it closer to the theory. In the quantitative stage, the results showed that there was a significant difference in the overall score between pretest and posttest after intervention of pickture books (p=0.001). In the single field, only the nutrition knowledge field showed a significant difference (p=0.016). Girls in the community may understand elderly more than boys before intervention (p= 0.001), but picture books had certain effects on boys and girls. The scores were higher among higher grade children score than intermediate grade children's after intervention (p = 0.038). Besides, just as literatures showed, picture books that were more conforming to children's literature theory were more popular. In the brief interview we could also learn that presenting knowledge in the way children like could make children feel interested and willing to learn. The conclusion is that using the stakeholder engagement design can transform the evidence-based of geriatrics and gerontology into a series of picture books featuring the elderly. Not only those could meet medical and educational literary theory expected by professionals and the current situation of elderly but also be suitable for children to read. The pickture books enable children interested in understanding on elderly and willing to learn.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
Abstract III
致謝 VII
目錄 IX
表目錄 ⅩII
圖目錄 ⅩIII

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2

第二章 文獻探討 3
第一節 老年知識教育的重要性與對高齡者的影響 3
第二節 世代理解的現況 4
第三節 兒童的高齡知識教育 5
第四節 國內外社區銀幼世代理解介入的實證研究 7
第五節 學習為導向的知識教育發展契機 - 繪本(picture book) 9
第六節 繪本(picture book)於高齡或衛生教育之應用研究 11
第七節 相關者為導向設計方式的相關概念與應用 11
第八節 研究缺口 13
第九節 研究目的與假設 14

第三章 研究方法 16
第一節 研究設計 16
第二節 兒童繪本原型與高齡知識系統的建立 18
第三節 研究參與者 20
第四節 測量工具 21
第五節 分析方法 23

第四章 研究結果 26
第一節 原型繪本的開發設計 26
第二節 參與者特徵 33
第三節 繪本相關者於三本繪本中的訪談意見 40
第四節 訪談內容之意見判別與高齡知識繪本修正結果 93
第五節 專業人員教材適用性量表評分結果 124
第六節 兒童以修正高齡知識繪本介入之前後成效測驗結果 132
第七節 兒童在介入後對繪本的喜好度與觀感 128

第五章 研究結果討論 137
第一節 重要研究結果與討論 137
第二節 不同相關者對於原型繪本之觀點異同比較 141
第三節 兒童以修正高齡知識繪本介入之成效 143

第六章 研究結論 145
第一節 研究優勢 145
第二節 研究限制 145
第三節 相關者為導向的方法用於高齡領域事物的重要性 146
第四節 研究結論 148
第五節 未來展望 148

第七章 參考文獻 150

第八章 附錄 160
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