||Identifying Mobile Application Design for Enhancing the Subjective Wellbeing of Middle-Aged Adults.
||Department of Industrial Design
As the technology advances and social development, well-being has already become a new indicator that people pursue for. Feeling of well-being the lowest of group is the middle-aged people. To solve the problem, this study explored subjective (internal) feeling of well-being the composition of and enduring (external) feeling of well-being the composition of and definitions, and designed an app which can enhance the middle-aged people’s feeling of well-being. The research methodology has a total of four experiments, which are respectively: Experiment 1. 253 copies of questionnaire to explore middle-aged people’s well-being core and factor. Experiment 2. Testing well-being apps on the market and apps’ pros and cons. Experiment 3. well-being interview in-depth understand middle-aged people profound well-being core. Experiment 4. The middle-aged people pictures of well-being implication and interpretation.
The questionnaire result of Experiment 1 after factor analysis discover have 14 factor, 14 factor respectively “Satisfaction and richness inside the heart”, positive affects, negative affect, life satisfaction degree, feeling self-realization, “ Actively devoted to meaningful events/activities ”, “Health and economic assets”, Living a life with a goal, “Enjoy events/activities that I am undertaking”(to express myself), clearly understand myself/ego, optimistic devotion suitable your own events/activities, “Being aware of what I should do”, “The relationship between myself, family, and friends”, “Optimistically expecting the future”, and drew well-being radar chart calculated middle-aged people most deficiency of well-being factor, and internal feeling of well-being and external feeling of well-being for investigation. Experiment 2 discover at the moment on the market well-being related app were divided into five types of type, but enhance middle-aged people’s feeling of well-being effects are rather limited. Experiment 3 used qualitative study the encoding of manner generation result, results of which also scores are between-group and within group for investigation, between-group result demonstrate well-being core the top three in sequence are as follows: remain body health, family relationship and achieve self-fulfillment. Besides, middle-aged people’s interest and feeling of well-being on nothing related. While education background and annual revenue and feeling of well-being present degrees positively correlated. Experiment 4 with 26 images for understanding the middle-aged people’s pictures of well-being and families harmony and gathering together accounted for the largest portion.
Finally, this study proposed design guidelines and design examples for the well-being app. It is anticipated that using this study’s well-being app can satisfy middle-aged people ten well-being factors, the study serving as the basis for follow-up design well-being related product for reference.
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES x
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research background 1
1.2 Research motivation 3
1.3 Purpose of the research 4
1.4 Scope of research and limitation 5
1.5 Research framework 6
CHAPTER 2 Literature review and retrospective study 7
2.1 Constituents of well-being types 7
2.2 Subjective well-being 8
2.3 Psychological well-being 11
2.4 Hedonic Well-being 13
2.5 Enduring Well-being 13
2.6 Happiness 15
2.7 Eudaimonic well-being 16
2.8 Brief summary of well-being 16
CHAPTER 3 Research Method 19
3.1 Experiment 1. Global feeling of well-being for middle-aged people 20
3.2 Experiment 2 - Tests and comparison of the well-being related apps on the market. 24
3.3 Experiments 3. Semistructured well-being interviews. 26
3.4 Experiment 4. Interviews for the pictures of happiness 29
CHAPTER 4 Result 31
4.1 Results of the well-being questionnaire in Experiment 1 32
4.1.1 Most favorite apps for middle-aged people 33
4.1.2 Current general situation of the middle-aged people’s well-being 37
4.1.3 Analysis results of 14 factors 40
4.1.4 Ranking of importance for well-being factors 47
4.1.5 Factors of the well-being equation 47
4.1.6 Well-being scores and radar charts 52
4.2 Experiment 2 Selection and evaluation results of related well-being apps on the market 58
4.2.1 Selection result of well-being apps on the market 58
4.2.2 Middle-aged people’s feedback on using the well-being apps on the market 60
4.2.3 Relationship between the well-being apps on the market and the 14 quadrants of well-being 63
4.2.4 Brief summary 63
4.3 Experiments 3 Results of well-being interviews 65
4.3.1 Results of middle-aged people’s global well-being interviews 65
4.4 Results of participants’ pictures of well-being 68
4.5 Brief summary 81
CHAPTER 5 Discussion 83
5.1 Overview well-being of middle-aged adult 83
5.1.1 The overall feeling of well-being for the middle-aged people only just at the above average degree 83
5.1.2 The relationship between interests and the feeling of well-being 83
5.1.3 Both financial income and education background affect the middle-aged people’s feeling of well-being 84
5.1.4 14 well-being factors that affect the middle-aged people 85
5.2 The apps on the market have a limited effect on the concrete help for people to enhance the well-being 87
5.3 The investigation of well-being interviews and pictures of well-being 88
5.3.1 The definition of well-being 88
5.3.2 Well-being factors and well-being equations 88
5.3.3 Health is a type of well-being 89
5.3.4 “Family” accounts for the largest proportion for the interviews and pictures of happiness 90
5.3.5 Matching problem of interview encoding and well-being equations 92
CHAPTER 6 Conclusion and recommendations 97
6.1 The middle-aged people’s performance on the feeling of global well-being 97
6.1.1 Results of investigations on the well-being related apps on the market 98
6.1.2 Highlights within group after the qualitative analysis 99
6.1.3 Within-group conclusions of the qualitative analysis 101
6.2 Reflections on the qualitative analysis and study of the well-being cores 102
6.3 Expected benefits of the well-being app 103
6.4 The possibility of follow-up research 103
6.4.1 The app design requires the consideration of users’ capability of absorbing the test information 103
6.4.2 The app design is required to consider the immediate feedback 104
6.5 The possibility of follow-up research 104
6.5.1 From the aspect of well-being interactive display patterns 104
6.5.2 From the aspect of different feelings of happiness for different groups 105
6.5.3 From the aspect of the husband-wife relationship for the middle-aged people in the future 105
6.5.4 From the aspect of family interactions/parent-child relationships 106
Appendix A Experiment 1 Well-being Questionnaire 113
Appendix B Experiment 2-4 interview 122
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