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系統識別號 U0026-1901201608451000
論文名稱(中文) 應用遙感探測技術研究海岸帶之物質傳輸與颱風影響
論文名稱(英文) Applications of remote sensing techniques on suspended material transport and typhoon influences in the coastal zones of Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 104
學期 1
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 鍾曉緯
研究生(英文) Hsiao-Wei Chung
學號 L48001032
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 188頁
口試委員 指導教授-劉正千
口試委員-李明安
口試委員-吳朝榮
口試委員-張懿
口試委員-黃誌川
口試委員-羅文增
中文關鍵字 遙感探測  沖淡水團  粒子粒徑分布  物質傳輸  水質  颱風 
英文關鍵字 remote sensing  river plume  particle size distribution  material transport  water quality  typhoon 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣四面環海,人口居住多集中於西部平原沿海地區,密集的人為開發、大量陸源物質輸出、民生廢水與工業用水之排放讓近岸海洋環境遭受污染與破壞的威脅,而未來在全球暖化的影響下,極端天氣事件的發生與海水面上升會帶來更大的海岸災害。本研究將台灣近岸海洋環境未來可能面臨之問題針對下列兩個方向進行遙感探測技術發展:海水表面物質傳輸與颱風對近岸海洋環境之影響。
沖淡水團所攜帶的陸源物質中含有大量的懸浮粒子,然而粒子粒徑分布是影響光學海洋學和海洋環境的一個重要因子。粒子的特性,可能會影響水體的固有光學性質(IOPs),例如背向散射係數bb,根據米氏散射定律,不同的粒子粒徑對於不同波長的光線會產生不同的前向散射與後向散射比。此外,海洋粒子的大小能夠決定入射海中太陽光的百分比,將影響初級生產力及生態系統中的生物分布。本研究之現地資料量測工作在高屏溪口沿海及河口延伸向小琉球外海方向,高屏溪在台灣的河流中有沉積物和河流流量變化大之特性,在此區域中進行現地資料量測有機會量測到高變化量之水樣,例如:葉綠素濃度、總懸浮物質濃度、IOPs和粒子粒徑分佈等變化量。在同一時間量測水面上的遙測反射率,經由船載水面高光譜量測儀器量測資料,用於反算IOPs和水體水質狀況以及檢驗IOPs與粒子粒徑分布之關係。
然而,河海交界系統中的高濃度懸浮物質是沖淡水團經由河口傳輸至海中,所以沖淡水團動力系統直接影響河海交界系統中的藻類、海洋基礎生產力、含氮物質、汙染物與其他物質的分布。本研究利用具有每日再訪軌道的福衛二號獲取高屏河口高空間解析度(8m)之衛星影像進行高屏河口沖淡水團時空分布之研究。高屏溪是台灣最長的河川,其輸出之懸浮物質含量為世界河川平均值之兩倍。如同其他河川的沖淡水團一般,高屏河口沖淡水團時空變化同樣受到季節、潮汐、雨量、河川流量、表面風場、表面洋流與極端天氣事件(颱風、暴雨)影響。為了清楚的瞭解影響沖淡水團時空分布之各項因子所扮演之角色,本研究從2005年到2008年中雲覆率低於30%之衛星影像利用福衛二號影像自動處理系統進行幾何糾正與相對輻射校正。經幾何糾正與相對輻射校正後套用最大似然率法分類,將水體分為沖淡水團、混合水體與離岸水體三類。分類結果將討論沖淡水團大小、方向、混合水體的鋒面圖形與前述各項環境因子的關係。根據資料觀察之結果本研究提出以下結論,高屏溪的河川流量與集水區內的降雨量有高度的相關性,沖淡水團的大小主要是受到河川流量與降雨兩項因素的影響。沖淡水團以外到外圍的離岸水體之間的混和水體的分布情況經常出現鋒面的圖形,根據各項因子分析結果發現風場與洋流的方向夾角皆為90度以內,由此發現風場方向與表面洋流方向容易造成鋒面的圖形出現。最後,颱風事件造成的沖淡水團平均分布距離為 6 km,約為沒有颱風事件時平均值的4倍。
為了補足福衛二號影像時間解析度不足,並且觀察沖淡水團之動態變化,本研究利用地球同步海洋水色成像儀(GOCI)每天提供八幅時間解析度為一小時之影像進行海水表面物質傳輸監測,利用GOCI高時間解析度衛星影像反算海面物質傳輸,利用正規化交相關法與相位相關法計算GOCI Level 1B影像之綠光波段,推導海水表面物質傳輸徑線。再以2013年Soulik颱風襲台的事件為例,運用雷達衛星與地球同步海洋水色衛星,雙衛星觀測結果評估颱風對近岸與海洋環境所造成之影響。總結本研究之成果與發展之遙感探測技術,對於未來全球氣候變遷可能顯著增強之全球暖化、海岸變遷與極端天氣事件影響可以提升防災、減災的效果。根據上述之研究成果,分析遙測技術應用於海岸帶之優勢與挑戰性並評估未來研究發展之方向。
英文摘要 In this study, the application of remote sensing methods to investigate the coastal environment issues with high spatial resolution, high temporal resolution, and radar satellites, the key work items can be divided into four parts, the first part is the use of FORMOSAT-2 high spatial resolution images which performed Gaoping River plume distribution and environmental factors, the second part is the use of radiative transfer model in producing hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance data base and the analysis of the relationship between inherent optical properties and particle size distribution (PSD). The developing of PSD retrieving model is based on the relationship between inherent optical properties and PSD. The third part is the use of geostationary ocean color satellite with high temporal resolution to derive the inverse of the sea surface currents flow velocity, and trace sea surface substances distribution with hourly imagery of the same day. The fourth part is the flood event was caused by the intensive precipitation brought by Typhoon Soulik in July 2013. Two COSMO-SkyMed images and high temporal resolution GOCI images were successfully acquired when the center of Typhoon Soulik had just crossed the northern part of Taiwan. The results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly responding to a typhoon-induced flood with a spaceborne SAR-derived map of inundated areas and trace the terrigenous materials that output from I-Lan River. To summarize, the results and techniques of this study can help to improve the efficiency of disaster management in the cases such as global warming, coast change in trend, and extreme climate event.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 VII
目錄 VIII
圖目錄 XII
表目錄 XIX
符號與英文縮寫 XXI
第 1 章 研究緣起 1
1.1 研究背景與目的 1
1.2 論文架構 4
第 2 章 粒子粒徑分布與水體固有光學性質關聯 7
2.1 研究介紹 7
2.2 研究資料與方法 8
2.2.1 水中粒子粒徑分布狀態反算之相關研究 8
2.2.2 海洋光學理論 10
2.2.3 生光模式 13
2.2.4 輻射傳輸模式 17
2.2.5 準解析演算法 18
2.2.6 模擬資料:水中粒子粒徑分布資料 19
2.2.7 現地資料量測 20
2.2.8 海水葉綠素與總懸浮固體樣品分析 23
2.2.9 海水表面遙測反射率光譜 24
2.2.10 粒子粒徑分布指數計算 25
2.3 研究結果 25
2.3.1 水體固有光學性質之反算 25
2.3.2 水質反算模式 29
2.3.3 水體固有光學性質與粒子粒徑分布狀態之關聯性 32
2.4 結論與建議 36
第 3 章 高屏河口沖淡水團分布與環境因子關聯 38
3.1 研究介紹 38
3.2 研究資料與方法 39
3.2.1 研究區域:高屏河口 39
3.2.2 沖淡水團分類 43
3.2.3 福爾摩沙衛星二號 44
3.2.4 福爾摩沙衛星二號影像處理 47
3.2.5 影響沖淡水團分布之環境因子選取 50
3.3 研究結果 54
3.3.1 沖淡水團核心水體面積大小與環境因子之關聯性 54
3.3.2 沖淡水團核心水體存在之時間 55
3.3.3 颱風事件與沖淡水團核心水體大小之關聯性 58
3.3.4 高屏河口沖淡水團渦流形成之機制 59
3.3.5 潮汐作用對於沖淡水團/近岸水體之分布關係 62
3.4 結論與建議 63
第 4 章 台灣北部海域海水表面物質傳輸 66
4.1 研究介紹 66
4.2 研究資料與方法 67
4.2.1 海水表面物質傳輸之相關研究 67
4.2.2 研究區域:台灣北部海域 71
4.2.3 地球同步海洋水色衛星 75
4.2.4 影像特徵點追蹤:正規化交相關法 77
4.2.5 影像特徵點追蹤:相位相關法 77
4.2.6 地球同步海洋水色衛星影像處理 78
4.3 研究結果 84
4.3.1 潮汐作用下形成之往返流 84
4.3.2 台灣海峽北部物質傳輸 86
4.3.3 台灣東北海域冷渦現象 92
4.3.4 淡水河口沖淡水團 95
4.4 結論與建議 98
第 5 章 颱風引發暴雨事件對近岸與海洋環境之影響 100
5.1 研究介紹 100
5.2 研究資料與方法 102
5.2.1 颱風引發海陸環境交互作用之相關研究 102
5.2.2 研究區域:宜蘭縣與東北部海域 103
5.2.3 現地資料量測:淹水水位測站 104
5.2.4 合成孔徑雷達衛星 105
5.2.5 合成孔徑雷達衛星影像處理:水體範圍判釋 106
5.2.6 合成孔徑雷達衛星影像處理:淹水深度推估 109
5.3 研究結果 113
5.3.1 颱風造成淹水災害之災中快速應變 113
5.3.2 淹水範圍判釋 116
5.3.3 淹水深度推估 119
5.3.4 颱風造成之暴雨事件對近岸與海洋環境之影響 123
5.4 結論與建議 126
第 6 章 結論與建議 129
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