||Media Form Design for Picture Book Based on Attractiveness Factors and Children’s Attention
||Department of Industrial Design
Media Forms of Picture Books
The reading development of children depends on various sensory stimuli to help them construct reading contexts and facilitate active learning and exploration. This study uses sensory stimuli provided by picture books using various forms of media to improve children's attention performance. We employ picture books using four forms of media: conventional books, pop-up books, talking books, and e-books. Miryoku Engineering is adopted to explore how children and parents select picture books and the influential attractiveness factors, and the NeuroSky MindBand is used as a tool to measure attention in this study. According to attractiveness evaluations, six major attractiveness factors identified by Evaluation Grid Method are “Simple and Comprehensible Layout Design”, “Thin and Lightweight Dimensions”, and “The Sense of Ownership” for conventional book, “Various Page Displays” for pop-up book, and “Multifunctional Reading Methods” and “Vivid Story Plots” for talking book and e-book. The evaluation result shows that parents focus on the learning efficacy and functionality of picture books, while children enjoy reading with colorful pictures and diverse styles between pages. Moreover, the reading experience has a significant influence on children’s sensory preferences regarding the attractiveness factors of picture books. In attention EEG experiment, children in Grade 3 express higher attention and interest than children in Grade 6 in picture books, and the effect of gender is greater than that of grade on the level of attention invest in picture book media form exhibits a significant interaction and effects on children's attention performance. As a result, we suggest that talking books or e-books, which provide multisensory stimuli, should be selected for elementary school boys. In addition, talking books should be selected for girls in young elementary school students, while conventional books should be used for girls in senior elementary school students to avoid distraction caused by excessive media stimuli. The result of this paper can be used as important references for children, parents and teachers to select appropriate picture books.
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS ix
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Purposes 2
1.3 Research Approaches 3
1.4 Research Scope and Limitations 4
1.5 Research Framework 5
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Sensory Stimuli in Media Forms of Picture Books 7
2.1.1 Conventional Book: Visual Perception 8
2.1.2 Pop-up Book: Visual and Tactile Perceptions 8
2.1.3 Talking Book: Audial and Visual Perceptions 9
2.1.4 E-book: Multisensory Perceptions 9
2.2 Kansei Engineering and Miryoku Engineering 10
2.2.1 Kansei Engineering 10
2.2.2 Miryoku Engineering 11
2.3 Attention Performance and Cognitive Development 13
2.3.1 Attention and Learning Performance 13
2.3.2 Cognitive Development in Children 14
2.4 Attention EEG and NeuroSky MindBand 15
2.4.1 Attention and EEG 15
2.4.2 Mobile EEG Device - NeuroSky MindBand 16
CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 18
3.1 Experimental Design of Attractiveness Factors in Picture Books 18
3.1.1 Participants of Attractiveness Factors in Picture Books 18
3.1.2 The Representative Samples of EGM 19
3.1.3 Experimental Procedure of Attractiveness Factors in Picture Books 21
3.2 Experimental Design of Attention EEG 22
3.2.1 Participants of Attention EEG 23
3.2.2 The Representative Samples of Picture Books in Attention EEG 25
3.2.3 Experimental Tool: NeuroSky MindBand 26
3.2.4 Experimental Procedure of Attention EEG 27
CHAPTER 4 ATTRACTIVENESS FACTORS OF PICTURE BOOK MEDIA FORMS 28
4.1 Attractiveness Evaluation in Various Picture Books: Evaluation Hierarchical Map 28
4.1.1 Converting Evaluation Hierarchical Map into the Questionnaire 31
4.2 Analysis of Attractiveness Factors’ Questionnaire 31
4.2.1 The Attractiveness Evaluation of Children and Parents: QTTI 31
4.3 Children and Parents Differences in Attractiveness Factors of Various Picture Books: Independent Samples t-Test 36
4.4 Gender Differences in Attractiveness Factors of Various Picture Books: Independent Samples t-Test 37
4.5 Difference Comparison Regarding Different Years of Reading Experience: One-Way ANOVA 38
4.6 Protocol Analysis of Different Media Forms of Picture Books 39
4.6.1 The Media Form of Conventional Book 39
4.6.2 The Media Form of Pop-up Book 40
4.6.3 The Media Form of Talking Book 41
4.6.4 The Media Form of E-book 42
CHAPTER 5 EFFECTS OF AGES, GENDERS, AND PICTURE BOOK MEDIA FORMS ON ATTENTION PERFORMANCE 44
5.1 Children’s Attention and Differences between Grade 3 and Grade 6 46
5.2 Effects of Gender, Grade, and Media Forms of Picture Books on Children’s Attention and Interactions: Three-Way ANOVA 47
5.2.1 Simple Main Effect Test of “Gender × Picture Book Media Form” 48
5.2.2 Difference Comparison Regarding the Picture Book Media Forms among the Boys: One-Way ANOVA 49
5.2.3 Difference Comparison Regarding the Picture Book Media Forms among the Girls: One-Way ANOVA 49
5.2.4 Gender Differences in Groups Reading Picture Books with Varying Media Forms: Independent Samples t Test 50
5.3 Gender Differences based on Grades and Picture Book Media Forms: Independent Samples t Tests 51
5.4 Effect of Gender Groups from Different Grades on Attention Performance: One-Way ANOVA 53
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION 55
6.1 Attractiveness Factors in Various Media Forms Picture Books 55
6.1.1 Discussion of Attractiveness Factors in Media Forms Picture Book 55
6.1.2 Reading Experience Influences the Children’s Opinions 57
6.1.3 Summary 57
6.2 Effects of Different Ages, Genders, and Picture Book Media Forms on Children’s Attention Performance 58
6.2.1 Effects of Different Ages and Picture Book Media Forms on Children’s Attention 58
6.2.2 Effects of Different Genders and Picture Book Media Forms on Children's Attention 59
6.2.3 Summary 60
6.3 Further Research and Suggestion 62
Appendix A 71
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