||Numerical Simulation of the Laser Welding Process with Recoil Effect
||Department of Mechanical Engineering
本研究目的為以計算流體力學為基礎建立三維鋁合金材料(Al-5182)平板雷射銲接(Laser Welding)燒熔數值模型，模擬中採用高斯雷射分佈作用於金屬基板之加工過程，同時考慮蒸發質量移除、蒸發潛熱，馬倫格尼力(Marangoni force)、反衝壓力(Recoil force)、表面張力(Surface tension)、固液化模型及多相流模型，使得金屬升溫相變化過程中更符合物理現象，並觀察燒熔過程中金屬材料由固體受熱至熔化，期間熔池的暫態流動行為、傳熱機制及其物理特性變化情況，比較不同雷射功率及雷射進給速度對熔池寬度與深度之變化，分析表面力作用於流場中之影響。
本研究數值模型與文獻實驗針對不同雷射加工參數比對，寬度與深度結果大致吻合，可透過數值模型觀察燒熔過程中微觀物理現象，燒熔過程中傳熱機主要由對流影響，熔池寬度及深度與無因次參數 數及 數相關性較高，多相流模型中自由液面可使燒熔過程中熔池低於基板位置，表面力馬倫格尼力使熔池對流效果明顯及反衝壓力使熔池深度增加，對流場中有不同作用及影響不可單獨忽略其中任一項，蒸發減少質量對熔池寬度與深度影響不顯著。
The purpose of this study was to establish a three-dimensional laser welding melting numerical model for an aluminum alloy flat plate (Al-5182) based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In the simulation, a Gaussian beam is used to process the metal substrate. Furthermore, mass removal through evaporation, latent heat of evaporation, Marangoni forces, recoil force, and surface tension, in addition to a solidification model, liquefaction model, and multiphase flow model are considered simultaneously to ensure consistency of the metal heating process and phase change with the real physical phenomenon. The solid metal material is heated to its melting, and the transient flow behavior of the molten pool, heat transfer mechanism, and changes in physical characteristics during the melting process are observed. The changes in the width and depth of the molten pool resulting from different laser powers and speeds are compared, and the effect of surface forces on the flow field is analyzed.
The numerical model used in this study was compared with experiments in the literature for different laser processing parameters. It was found that the results of the width and depth are approximately consistent. Through the numerical model, microscopic physical phenomena during the melting process can be observed. The heat transfer mechanism during the melting process is mainly affected by convection and surface forces; therefore, the effect of surface forces on the flow field cannot be neglected, whereas the effect of mass removal through evaporation on the width and depth of the molten pool is negligible.
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 雷射銲接與傳統製造工法與背景 1
1.2 文獻回顧 4
1.2.1 雷射銲接模式與物理機制 4
1.2.2 雷射銲接數值模擬 8
1.2.3 雷射銲接常見之缺陷及成因 10
1.2.4 研究目的 14
第二章 研究方法 15
第三章 結果與討論 21
3.1 數值模型與流場設定 21
3.2 模擬與實驗結果比較 28
3.3 模擬分析 32
第四章 結論與未來展望 43
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