系統識別號 U0026-1808201518011100
論文名稱(中文) 應用有限元素人偶頭頸模型評估安全帽之顱顏防護效果
論文名稱(英文) Finite Element Based Assessment of Craniofacial Protection in Helmet Utilizing Dummy Head-Neck
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 機械工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical Engineering
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 林志融
研究生(英文) Jhih-Rong Lin
電子信箱 n16021480@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 n16021480
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 96頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃才烱
中文關鍵字 安全帽  標準  護顎  頭臉部 
英文關鍵字 Helmet  Standard  Chin bar  Craniofacial 
中文摘要 在台灣,機車是隨處可見卻相對危險的交通工具,一旦機車車禍發生,頭部遭受撞擊是最可能造成致命的傷害,因此佩戴安全帽對機車騎士而言十分重要。有人指出嚴重機車意外事故中,大部分撞擊位置都位於安全帽前半部,因此護顎裝置絕對不容輕易忽略。

目前世界上訂有護顎檢測規範的主要標準有:美國Snell標準、英國BS 6658及歐盟ECE 22.05。然而無論Snell或BS 6658,其判別保護性能的方法皆為固定護顎裝置受撞鎚落下撞擊,此配置並不符合真實事故發生時的情形。本研究使用具生物擬真性的碰撞人偶頭型,以及其改良臉部性質的修正臉型,取代標準剛體頭型進行張氏護顎撞擊試驗;另外更進一步以人偶頸部取代導軌與頭型間的懸臂,探討如此改變是否更能呈現人體正面撞擊地面的情形;同時,也比較未戴與佩戴安全帽者之間的差異。

英文摘要 Because of the existing chin bar test of helmet standard does not match the reality, to study how the helmets protect the craniofacial when real accident occurred, this study utilize finite element Hybrid Ⅲ original dummy head and neck model, as well as the improved face form, which have biofidelity, to replace the standard head form in Zhang’s chin bar impact test.
The tests were simulated by the finite element tools and computer aided design software, including Hypermesh, LS-DYNA and Solidworks. This study divide into 24 cases, depend on add neck or not, modify face form or not, wear helmet or not. Finally, all the results were assessment by head, face and neck injury criteria, to realize how these parts get injured.
The results show that: 1.The angle limitation of using a modified face should be given attention. 2. Part of neck injury criteria are not suitable on chin bar test assessment. 3. To take a strict standard, using the original dummy without neck is an ideal scenario.
論文目次 摘要 I
誌謝 VI
目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 XI
符號說明 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 文獻回顧 3
1.2.1 安全帽相關研究 3
1.2.2 臉部傷害相關 7
1.3 論文架構 10
第二章 研究背景 12
2.1 安全帽演進史與檢測標準 12
2.1.1 發展歷程 12
2.1.2 檢測規範 15
2.2 HybridⅢ碰撞人偶簡介 18
2.2.1 發展歷程 19
2.2.2 Hybrid Ⅲ 人偶構造 20
2.3 人體頭臉頸部結構介紹 22
2.3.1 頭臉部結構 22
2.3.2 頸部結構 26
2.4 傷害評估方法之探討 28
2.4.1 傷害閾值分級 28
2.4.2 傷害量值評測 29
第三章 研究方法 41
3.1安全帽模型建立過程與校準 41
3.2 Hybrid Ⅲ 頭頸部模型生物擬真性驗證 44
3.2.1 頭部墜落測試 45
3.2.2 頸部單擺測試 47
3.3 修正臉型建立與驗證 53
3.3.1 模型建立 53
3.3.2 材料設定 59
3.3.3 生物擬真性驗證 60
3.4 模擬條件設定 64
第四章 模擬結果與傷害評估 67
4.1 頭部加速度峰值及HIC值比較 68
4.2 頭部角加速度峰值比較 74
4.3 頸部傷害準則NIC、 Nij、Nkm比較 76
4.4 臉部骨折傷害評估 81
第五章 結論與建議 85
5.1 研究總結 85
5.2 未來發展與建議 86
參考文獻 87
附錄A 濾波標準 SAE J211 92
附錄B 有限元素模型數據擷取方法 94
參考文獻 Allsop, Douglas “L”, Charles Y. Warner, Milton G. Wille, Dennis C. Schneider, and Alan M. Nahum, Facial Impact Response – A comparison of the Hybrid Ⅲ Dummy and Human Cadaver , Proceedings of the Thirty Second Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE 881719, pp. 139-155, 1988.
Boström O., Svensson M. Y., Aldman B., Hansson H., Håland Y., Lövsund P., Seeman T., Suneson A., Säljö A. and Örtengren T, A new neck injury criterion candidate based on injury findings in the cervical spine ganglia after experimental neck extension trauma, International IRCOBI conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, Dublin, Ireland., 1997.
British Standard Specification for Protective Helmets for Vehicle Users. BS 6658, 1985.
Chang, C. J., Chen, Y. R., Noordhoff, S., & Chang, C. N., Maxillary involvement in central craniofacial fractures with associated head injuries., Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 37(5), 807-811,1994.
Chang, L. T., Chang, C. H., and Chang, G. L., Experimental Evaluation of Chin Bar on Head Injury in Facial Impact, JSME International Journal, Ser. A, 42, 294–300, 1999.
COST 327 Motorcycle Safety Helmets Final Report of the Action.
Croop, B., Lobo, H., Selecting Material Models for the Simulation of Foams in LS-DYNA, 7th European LS-DYNA Conference, 2009.
Davidoff, G., Jakubowski, M., Thomas, D., & Alpert, M., The spectrum of closed-head injuries in facial trauma victims: incidence and impact. Annals of emergency medicine, 17(1), 6-9., 1988.
Davidsson J, Deutscher C, Hell W, Svensson MY, Linder A, Lövsund P. Human Volunteer Kinematics in Rear-End Sled Collisions. Proc. IRCOBI International Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts; Göteborg, Sweden. pp. 289–30., 1998b.
Davidsson J, Svensson MY, Flogård A, Håland Y, Jakobsson L, Linder A, Lövsund P, Wiklund K. BioRID I - A New Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy. Proc. IRCOBI International Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts; Göteborg, Sweden. pp. 377–390., 1998a.
Dowdell, B., et al., A study of helmet damage and rider head/neck injuries for crash involved motorcyclists, Road Safety Bureau. Crashlab., 1988.
E.C.E. R 22, Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Motorcycles and Mopeds, Geneva, 2002.
Eppinger, R., Sun, E., Kuppa, S., Supplement: development of improved injury criteria for the assessment of advanced automotive restraint systems – II”, NHTSA, 2000.
F.A.O Fernandes, R.J. Alves de Sousa, Motorcycle helmets – A state of the art review, Centre for Mechanical Technology and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 2013.
FMVSS 208, Occupant Crash protection, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Washington, 1993.
FMVSS 218, Motorcycle helmets, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Washington, 1997.
Frank H. Netter., Netter’s人體解剖學, 合記書局,2008。
Gilchrist, A., & Mills, N. J., Modeling of the impact response of motorcycle helmets., International journal of impact engineering, 15(3), 201-218., 1994.
Haddadin, S., Albu-Schaffer, A., Safety evaluation of physical human-robot interaction via crash-testing, Robotics: Science and Systems Conference, 2007.
Hampson, D., Facial injury: a review of biomechanical studies and test procedures for facial injury assessment., Journal of biomechanics, 28(1), 1-7., 1995.
Keenan, H. T., Brundage, S. I., Thompson, D. C., Maier, R. V., & Rivara, F. P., Does the Face Protect the Brain?: A Case-Control Study of Traumatic Brain Injury and Facial Fractures., Archives of Surgery, 134(1), 14-17., 1999.
King, A. I., Yang, K. H., Zhang, L., Is head injury caused by linear or angular acceleration?, Proceedings of the International Research Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts (IRCOBI), Lisbon, Portugal, 2003.
Kuppa, S., Injury Criteria for Side Impact Dummies, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 2004.
Lee, K. F., Wagner, L. K., Lee, Y. E., Suh, J. H., & Lee, S. R., The impact-absorbing effects of facial fractures in closed-head injuries: An analysis of 210 patients., Journal of neurosurgery, 66(4), 542-547., 1987.
Martin II, R. C., Spain, D. A., & Richardson, J. D., Do facial fractures protect the brain or are they a marker for severe head injury?., The American surgeon, 68(5), 477., 2002.
Melvin JW, Shee TR, Facial injury assessment techniques, 12th ESV, Vol. 1, Melvin JW, Little WC, eds. A biome-chanical face for the Hybrid III dummy. SAE #952715., 1989.
Nyquist GW, Cavanaugh JM, Goldberg SJ, King AI. Facial impact tolerance and response. 30th Stapp, #861896, SAE P-189, p. 379, 1986.
Prasad, P., Mertz, H. J., The position of the united states delegation to the iso working group on the use of HIC in the automotive environment, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), Vol. 94, Pages 106-116, 1985.
Sarba Guha, LSTC_NCAC Hybrid Ⅲ 50th Dummy Position & Post-processing, 2013.
Schmitt, K. U., Muser, M. H., Niederer, P., A New Injury Criterion Candidate for Rearend Collisions Taking into Account Shear Forces and Bemding Moments, Proceedings of 17th ESV Conference, Paper No. 124, 2001.
Standard for Protective Headgear. Snell Memorial Foundation, 2010.
State, J.D., The abbreviated and the comprehensive research injury scales, 13th Stapp Car Crash Conf., Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE),Paper No.690810, 1969.
T. J. Gibson, K. Thai, Helmet protection against basilar skull fracture, ATSB Reserch and Analysis Report Road Safety, Australian Transport Safety Bureau, 2007.
T.R. Perl & S. Nilsson & I. Planath & M.G.Wille, Deformable Load Sensing Hybrid Ⅲ Face, Collision Safety Engineering Inc. & Volvo Car Corporation & Brigham Young University, 1989.
Tse, K. M., Tan, L. B., Lee, S. J., Lim, S. P., & Lee, H. P., Investigation of the relationship between facial injuries and traumatic brain injuries using a realistic subject-specific finite element head model, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 79, 13-32, 2015.
Wilson, K.H., Carr, D.J., Head protection the application of mathematical modeling. In: Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference. Eindhoven Technical University, Eindhoven, The Netherlands., 1993.
Yang, K. H., Le, J., Finite Element Modeling of Hybrid Ⅲ Head – Neck Complex, SAE, Paper No.922526, 1992.
中國國家標準 CNS3902,乘坐機車用安全帽檢驗法,2007。
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2017-08-21起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2019-08-21起公開。

  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館