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系統識別號 U0026-1808201518011100
論文名稱(中文) 應用有限元素人偶頭頸模型評估安全帽之顱顏防護效果
論文名稱(英文) Finite Element Based Assessment of Craniofacial Protection in Helmet Utilizing Dummy Head-Neck
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 機械工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical Engineering
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 林志融
研究生(英文) Jhih-Rong Lin
電子信箱 n16021480@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 n16021480
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 96頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃才烱
口試委員-張立東
口試委員-許來興
中文關鍵字 安全帽  標準  護顎  頭臉部 
英文關鍵字 Helmet  Standard  Chin bar  Craniofacial 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在台灣,機車是隨處可見卻相對危險的交通工具,一旦機車車禍發生,頭部遭受撞擊是最可能造成致命的傷害,因此佩戴安全帽對機車騎士而言十分重要。有人指出嚴重機車意外事故中,大部分撞擊位置都位於安全帽前半部,因此護顎裝置絕對不容輕易忽略。

目前世界上訂有護顎檢測規範的主要標準有:美國Snell標準、英國BS 6658及歐盟ECE 22.05。然而無論Snell或BS 6658,其判別保護性能的方法皆為固定護顎裝置受撞鎚落下撞擊,此配置並不符合真實事故發生時的情形。本研究使用具生物擬真性的碰撞人偶頭型,以及其改良臉部性質的修正臉型,取代標準剛體頭型進行張氏護顎撞擊試驗;另外更進一步以人偶頸部取代導軌與頭型間的懸臂,探討如此改變是否更能呈現人體正面撞擊地面的情形;同時,也比較未戴與佩戴安全帽者之間的差異。

因此本研究依照是否加入頸部、有無臉型修正、佩戴安全帽與否等三個條件交互搭配組合,模擬高速、中速及低速度下的情形,共組成二十四種分析案例,最後將所有撞擊情形利用頭部加速度峰值、頭部HIC、臉部骨折容許值以及頸部傷害準則等傷害評估方法,評定頭、頸與臉部傷害情形。
英文摘要 Because of the existing chin bar test of helmet standard does not match the reality, to study how the helmets protect the craniofacial when real accident occurred, this study utilize finite element Hybrid Ⅲ original dummy head and neck model, as well as the improved face form, which have biofidelity, to replace the standard head form in Zhang’s chin bar impact test.
The tests were simulated by the finite element tools and computer aided design software, including Hypermesh, LS-DYNA and Solidworks. This study divide into 24 cases, depend on add neck or not, modify face form or not, wear helmet or not. Finally, all the results were assessment by head, face and neck injury criteria, to realize how these parts get injured.
The results show that: 1.The angle limitation of using a modified face should be given attention. 2. Part of neck injury criteria are not suitable on chin bar test assessment. 3. To take a strict standard, using the original dummy without neck is an ideal scenario.
論文目次 摘要 I
誌謝 VI
目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 XI
符號說明 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 文獻回顧 3
1.2.1 安全帽相關研究 3
1.2.2 臉部傷害相關 7
1.3 論文架構 10
第二章 研究背景 12
2.1 安全帽演進史與檢測標準 12
2.1.1 發展歷程 12
2.1.2 檢測規範 15
2.2 HybridⅢ碰撞人偶簡介 18
2.2.1 發展歷程 19
2.2.2 Hybrid Ⅲ 人偶構造 20
2.3 人體頭臉頸部結構介紹 22
2.3.1 頭臉部結構 22
2.3.2 頸部結構 26
2.4 傷害評估方法之探討 28
2.4.1 傷害閾值分級 28
2.4.2 傷害量值評測 29
第三章 研究方法 41
3.1安全帽模型建立過程與校準 41
3.2 Hybrid Ⅲ 頭頸部模型生物擬真性驗證 44
3.2.1 頭部墜落測試 45
3.2.2 頸部單擺測試 47
3.3 修正臉型建立與驗證 53
3.3.1 模型建立 53
3.3.2 材料設定 59
3.3.3 生物擬真性驗證 60
3.4 模擬條件設定 64
第四章 模擬結果與傷害評估 67
4.1 頭部加速度峰值及HIC值比較 68
4.2 頭部角加速度峰值比較 74
4.3 頸部傷害準則NIC、 Nij、Nkm比較 76
4.4 臉部骨折傷害評估 81
第五章 結論與建議 85
5.1 研究總結 85
5.2 未來發展與建議 86
參考文獻 87
附錄A 濾波標準 SAE J211 92
附錄B 有限元素模型數據擷取方法 94
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