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系統識別號 U0026-1808201513425900
論文名稱(中文) 探討工作模式與衰減於超音波逆散射訊號及統計模型分析鑑別生物組織特性之影響
論文名稱(英文) Effects of Operational Mode and Attenuation on the Characterization of Biological Tissues with Ultrasonic Backscattering Signals and Statistical Analysis
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 醫學資訊研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Medical Informatics
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 蔡亞庭
研究生(英文) Ya-Ting Tsai
學號 Q56024030
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 136頁
口試委員 指導教授-王士豪
口試委員-高宏宇
口試委員-梁勝富
口試委員-林奕勳
中文關鍵字 Nakagami 統計分布  組織特性  工作模式  超音波逆散射訊號  統計模型  機率密度函數  雷利分布  衰減效應  組織學分析  H&E染色  解析體  參數成像 
英文關鍵字 Nakagami statistical distribution  tissue characterization  operational mode  ultrasonic backscattering signal  statistical model  probability distribution function  Rayleigh distribution  attenuation effect  histological analysis  H&E staining  resolution cell  Parametric imaging. 
學科別分類
中文摘要 超音波逆散射訊號上的Nakagami統計分布可定量分析生物組織特性及組織中散射子密度及分布情形。在超音波訊號分析當中,發現與衰減效應有相依性,且超音波能量的衰減會隨著探頭頻率的增加而上升,導致回波訊號變形。因此,本研究探討將超音波的探頭頻率和激發脈衝持續週期,即工作模式提升對應於衰減效應,超音波參數影響統計參數的精確估算。
使用3.5MHz、7.5MHz和10MHz聚焦式換能器量測離體的豬肝組織及使用30MHz和50MHz聚焦式換能器量測活體大鼠的肝組織來進行實驗。豬肝組織分為健康豬肝及病變豬肝兩組,每組的數量為10,而十週大的Sprague Dawley (SD)大鼠肝臟組織數量為5。各個頻率的超音波換能器分別以1、3、5與10個週期的弦波訊號激發,弦波訊號由重複的脈衝串組成。衰減效應是利用在換能器及組織間擺放不同厚度的衰減假體作量測,而衰減假體的衰減係數為1.62 dB/mm.MHz。使用Nakagami統計模型包含Nakagami統計參數 (Nakagami-m)來描述及評估超音波逆散射包封訊號的機率密度函數。最後,使用組織學分析中的H&E染色,不僅檢測肝臟病理狀態,更可判別在解析體中散射子的分布情形。
離體豬肝研究結果顯示,衰減效應會使機率密度函數產生顯著的變化,而衰減效應在激發週期超過3且較低頻的換能器中會有持平或減緩的趨勢。機率密度函數從前雷利分布趨近於雷利分布。而健康及病變的豬肝在Nakagami統計分布上並沒有顯著的差異。此活體大鼠肝臟研究結果顯示,當衰減及激發週期增加,Nakagami統計參數也會緩慢增加,而機率密度函數則呈現前雷利分布。在組織學分析中,由於組織中有許多強散射子的分布,對應於前雷利分布且與實驗結果相符。在寬頻效應下,隨著激發週期的上升頻寬越趨近於窄頻而抑制衰減效應,尤以3個週期的弦波訊號對應於不同頻率的換能器的工作模式可以保留較好的軸向解析度及有效抑制衰減效應。目前研究確立了超音波的工作模式在生物組織上應用於統計模型分析,該統計模型分析可被進一步的探討參數成像以及臨床應用。
英文摘要 The Nakagami statistical distribution of ultrasonic backscattering signals has shown it is capable of characterizing the variations of density and arrangement of scatterers in biological tissues. This analysis of ultrasound signals has also found with less dependency on the effect of attenuation and the estimated statistical parameter can be affected by the board-band attenuation in the tissues and distortion of acquired echo signals. Accordingly, as the employed ultrasound frequency and pulse duration, namely operational mode, were increased, several additional factors could come into play and further affect the precise estimation of the statistical parameters. To further investigate the addressed issues, experiments were arranged and performed using 3.5, 7.5, and 10MHz focused transducer in vitro porcine liver tissues and using 30, 50MHz focused transducer in vivo rat liver tissues. The porcine liver tissues were obtained with either healthy (N=10) or pathological fibrosis (N=10) were obtained from a local slaughter house, and rat liver tissues from 10-week-old male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat liver tissues (N=5). Various excitation cycles, including 1, 3, 5, and 10, of tone bursts at pulse repetition frequency corresponding to ultrasound frequencies of 3.5, 7.5, 10, 30 and 50 MHz were adjusted for driving the transducers. Various thickness of attenuated phantoms with the attenuation coefficient of 1.62 dB/mm.MHz were placed on the surface of tissue to be measured. The Nakagami statistical model, which includes the shape parameter (Nakagami-m), was implemented to assess variations of the probability density function (PDF) estimated from the acquired ultrasonic backscattering signals. Eventually, the histological analysis, using the H&E staining, not only detect the pathological fibrosis liver status but also measure the number of scatterers in the resolution cell, it’s corresponds to a volume of ultrasound signals within transducer pulse length and the lateral profile beamwidths. Results of in vitro porcine liver tissues indicated that the attenuation could significantly vary the shape of PDF of backscattered envelopes. Results of in vivo rat liver tissues indicated that the Nakagami-m increased with the increasing ultrasound frequencies and bandwidth, and that those associated PDFs were nearly pre-Rayleigh distributed. Results of histological analysis are shown the stronger scatterers distributed in the tissues, the characterization of tissues both describe to pre-Rayleigh distribution. All the results consistently demonstrated that the use of 3 cycles tone bursts may achieve the most appropriate performance to accommodate a trade-off between attenuation effect and image resolution. Current study also verified that the operational modes of incident ultrasound need to be properly assured before that the statistical model may be further applied to parametric imaging and clinical applications.
論文目次 論文口試委員審定書(中文) I
論文口試委員審定書(英文) II
摘要 III
Abstract V
誌謝 VII
Table of Contents VIII
List of Tables XI
List of Figures XII
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Ultrasound 1
1.2 Quantitative Ultrasound Parameters 3
1.3 Ultrasonic Tissue Characterization 4
1.4 Research Objectives and Specific Aims 7
Chapter 2: Theoretical Background 9
2.1 Fundamentals of Ultrasound Wave Propagation 9
2.1.1 Acoustic Wave Equation 9
2.1.2 Reflection and Refraction 14
2.1.3 Attenuation and Absorption 16
2.1.4 Ultrasonic Scattering 17
2.2 Ultrasonic Transducers 21
2.2.1 Sound Field 24
2.2.2 Axial and Lateral Resolution 25
2.3 Statistical Models for Ultrasonic Backscattered Signals 27
2.4 Structure of Biological Liver Tissue 35
Chapter 3: Materials and Methods 36
3.1 Experiments on phantoms 36
3.2 Experiments on Animals 38
3.2.1 In Vitro Porcine Liver 38
3.2.2 In Vivo Sprague Dawley Rat 38
3.3 Experimental Arrangement 41
3.4 Measuring Sound Velocity and Attenuation of Material 63
3.5 Histological Analysis 70
Chapter 4:Results 77
4.1 Distributions of the Ultrasonic Backscattered Envelopes 77
4.1.1 In Vitro Porcine Liver Tissue 77
4.1.2 In Vivo Rat Liver Tissue 91
4.2 The Statistical Model of Probability Density Distribution 93
4.2.1 In Vitro Porcine Liver Tissue 93
4.2.2 In Vivo Rat Liver Tissue 104
4.3 Histological Sections 109
4.3.1 In Vitro Porcine Liver Tissue 109
4.3.2 In Vivo Rat Liver Tissue 111
Chapter 5:Discussion 112
5.1 Nakagami Statistical Analysis of Operational Mode and Attenuation in vitro Porcine Liver Tissues 112
5.2 Nakagami Statistical Analysis of Operational Mode and Attenuation in vivo Rat Liver Tissues 119
5.3 Comparison the Nakagami Statistical Analysis of Operational Mode and Attenuation in Phantom, in vitro Porcine Liver Tissues, and in vivo Rat Liver Tissues 120
5.4 Histological Analysis 122
5.4.1 Common Faults of Histological Analysis 122
5.4.2 Verification of Number of Scatterers by Histological Analysis 123
Chapter 6: Conclusions and Future Works 125
6.1 Conclusions 125
6.2 Future Works 127
References 129
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