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系統識別號 U0026-1808201408151900
論文名稱(中文) 嵌入式輔助互動式電動輪椅系統
論文名稱(英文) Interactive Assistive Electric Wheelchair with Embedded System
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 王尹辰
研究生(英文) Yin-Chen Wang
電子信箱 gn771018@hotmail.com
學號 N26011518
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 62頁
口試委員 指導教授-羅錦興
共同指導教授-陳世中
口試委員-陳沛仲
口試委員-馬慧英
口試委員-黃宜君
中文關鍵字 Codec Engine  ARM  DSP  Android  影像傳輸  PID控制  電動輪椅  嵌入式系統  DM3730  科技輔具 
英文關鍵字 Embedded System  ARM  DSP  Android  Image Transmission  PID Controller  Electric Power Wheelchairs  Assistive Technology 
學科別分類
中文摘要 市面上許多電動輪椅已經非常成熟並且常見,而大多數的電動輪椅輸入裝置幾乎都是搖桿式操作,使得一些雙手沒有能力動作的身心障礙者無法操控電動輪椅,只能依賴看戶或是其家人的輔助。在四肢癱瘓重障者雙手無法動作的情況下,本篇論文採用過去本實驗室所開發過的摩斯碼嘴控輸入系統為基礎,利用此摩斯碼系統來當作平板電腦的輸入裝置,間接的操控電動輪椅,也¬隨著本系統在平板電腦中所開發的應用程式,增加了使用者許多的活動性與方便性。
在電動輪椅系統整合中,以高效能雙核心嵌入式系統的技術為基礎,整合相關硬體週邊與感測器,包括Wi-Fi Adapter、電動輪椅馬達、線性致動器、影像無線傳輸等;而為了使影像能夠即時且有效的傳輸,我們將JPEG影像壓縮編碼實現於雙核心嵌入式系統平台上,其軟體架構上採用的是Codec Engine的方法,搭配硬體上利用共享記憶體(Share Memory)的配置技術,實現ARM與DSP的資料傳遞;並且在定點式的DSP上將部分計算定點化,提高DSP運算能力的效率;利用雙核心嵌入式系統平台的特性,設計多執行緒以達到平行處理的效果。在電動輪椅安全考量上,使用PID(Proportional-Integral-Derivative)平衡控制策略來改善因左右輪轉速不平均而導致電動輪椅無法順利直行的缺失,並藉著即時影像傳輸的輔助,將電動輪椅死角的畫面傳輸至使用者之平板電腦中,增加其安全性。
圖形介面則是以市面上之平板電腦或是智慧型手機來當作使用者操控面板,藉由我們所開發出的手機應用程式,利用Wi-Fi無線傳輸與SoftAP的技術,實現與電動輪椅系統的溝通,行駛中的資訊與狀況也能即時回饋至使用者,並以引導的方式來達到其輔助與互動之效果。
實驗結果顯示,本論文可以將電動輪椅系統端的影像透過Wi-Fi無線傳輸的方式,有效且即時的傳輸至平板電腦或是智慧型手機上顯示,以320x240之解析度為例,電動輪椅系統發送影像之執行速度每秒可以處理約29.4幀(frame),而在使用者之平板電腦(ASUS Fonepad 7)接收端則每秒可以收到27.6幀(frame)。而在電動輪椅控制方面,以PID控制器調整適當之參數達到電動輪椅兩輪直行之穩定度,在單次總位移量為兩公尺的情況下,體重74公斤以及體重81公斤左右的受測者均調整出最合適之PID參數,在電動輪椅直線運動時均能保持穩定不偏移,74公斤之受測者乘坐時的兩輪平均誤差位移量為0.65公分,81公斤之受測者則為0.41公分。
英文摘要 1.SUMMARY
Based on the technology of high-efficiency dual-core embedded systems, the authors propose an integrated electric-powered wheelchair system that integrates related hardware peripherals and sensors such as Wi-Fi adapters, electric wheelchair motors, linear actuators and wireless video transmissions. To transmit video immediately and effectively, a JPEG image is compressed and encoded on a dual-core embedded system platform using a codec engine software architecture approach. The hardware configuration technology uses shared memory to transfer ARM and DSP data and employs fixed-point calculation on the fixed-point DSP to increase its efficiency of calculation. The advantages of dual-core embedded system platform features and design multithreading achieve the effect of parallel processing. In terms of safety for electric wheelchairs, the system uses the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control strategy to improve deficiencies in going straight because the dynamic characteristics of left and right wheel speed are different. Furthermore, real-time image transfer allows the images from a wheelchair’s blind side to be transferred to the user’s tablet PC, thus increasing safety.

2.INTRODUCTION
In the face of an aging society, many people are experiencing age-caused diseases and gradually losing the ability to move, which means they must rely on electric-powered wheelchairs for independent movement. Currently, the most common type of input device for electric-powered wheelchairs is the joystick, yet people whose hands cannot operate normally are unable to use such a device. Therefore, current research is aimed at finding better input devices for electric-powered wheelchairs. Action identification achieved through voice control [4] and head movement with the use of a webcam [9] are some of the ideas that have been discussed. But these input devices are often designed for a specific disease and are not available for common use among people with all kinds of severe disabilities. Furthermore, the hardware design of these new devices use fixed sets of input, so if there is ever a need to replace other input methods, a lot of effort and time must be spent.
In the past, the development of electric-powered wheelchairs mostly focussed on the mechanism—such as the folded vs. the reclining wheelchair—and the integration of the joystick for control was taken for granted. The joystick device is mostly presented as a part of the hardware rather than, weakly, the software. Yet, if an electric-powered wheelchair is assisted by software, integrated with the necessary hardware and updated with an improved mechanism and technique, future electric-powered wheelchairs—whether using external controls or auxiliary interactive features—will match the demands of many different physically challenged groups.
With vigorous technology developments, a large number of embedded systems have recently been used in mobile phones, digital cameras, network equipment and even high-level home appliances; smart phones and tablet PCs are becoming more common—almost everyone has one. If we use these devices as a user interface and use Wi-Fi to transmit relevant signals to a microcomputer and the drive circuits associated with electric-powered wheelchairs, then tablet PCs can communicate directly with electric-powered wheelchairs. In this way, tablet PCs may be applied to assist users with control operation and interaction. Moreover, regarding version control, software and firmware can easily be updated in this way.
However, people who have lost mental and physical abilities cannot control tablet PCs without specific help. So, we use the Morse code converter [1], [2], [5] (which was developed by our laboratory) as an input device. This device simulates the mouse and keyboard for tablet PCs. People with disabilities can take advantage of various different input switches—for example, mouth control, foot control and head control—and can pass the signal through the Morse code converter to the tablet PC application to manipulate electric-powered wheelchairs.
With the assistance of a high-performance micro-controller, we integrate the control circuit with real-time video transmission in addition to other necessary control items (electric wheelchair motor, linear actuator or optical encoder). This transmission will have direct communication with the user’s tablet PC or mobile phone and enable interaction with the user to increase driving safety, thus meeting user’s needs and providing a smart electric-powered wheelchair for users with severe disabilities.

3.MATERIALS AND METHODS
Embedded auxiliary within the proposed interactive system for electric wheelchairs allows people with severe physical or mental disabilities to control their electric-powered wheelchairs and is also interactive and multi-functional. Morse code is input through a mouse-controlled switch via a Morse code converter, which converts various signals into signals for mouse or keyboards, thus operating applications in tablet PCs. Then, through PC applications, the electric wheelchair is controlled using Wi-Fi technology and electronic control systems that allow electric wheelchairs to communicate with each other. Among the electronic control systems in this electric-powered wheelchair, two microprocessors are used for system integration—namely, BeagleBoard-xM and STM32F407. The main microprocessor is BeagleBoard-xM, which serves as the main core of the entire electronic control system and is in charge of every peripheral’s state information. Communication between the electric-powered wheelchair and the user’s tablet PC goes through BeagleBoard-xM first; therefore, we use a USB Wi-Fi adapter for two-way communication with the user’s tablet PC. In addition, to allow users to watch ground images from the electric-powered wheelchair, a webcam is added to BeagleBoard-xM to transmit images to the user’s tablet PC in real time. Regarding image transmission, codec engine technology is used to call the BeagleBoard-xM DSP core to take complex calculations to the DSP core and to reach communications between DSP and ARM.
The secondary microprocessor is STM32F407, which is developed and designed specially for control; therefore, it plays the role of directly communicating with peripheral control such as motor controllers for the electric-powered wheelchair, linear actuators and rotary encoders. BeagleBoard-xM and STM32F407 are in a master–slave relationship using UART signals for serial transmission.
The mobile app we developed allows a graphic interface to use the commercial tablet computer or smartphone as a user control panel using Wi-Fi transmission with SoftAP technology to realise communication with electric-powered wheelchair systems. Moving information and conditions can provide feedback to the user in real time, thus providing guidance assistance and interaction.
Graphics interface is available on the tablet computer or smartphone in the market as the user control panel with the mobile app we developed using Wi-Fi transmission with SoftAP technology to realise communication with electric power wheelchair systems. Moving information and condition can provide feedback to the user in real-time and reach its assistance and interaction effects in the way of guiding.

4.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Experimental results show that this system can effectively transmit images from electric-powered wheelchair systems to tablet PCs or smartphones for display using Wi-Fi wireless transmission. For instance, taking a resolution of 320 × 240 as an example, the executive speed of the electric-powered wheelchair system can handle approximately 29.4 frames per second, while the receiving end of the user’s tablet PC can receive 27.6 frames per second. The control system of an electric-powered wheelchair uses a PID controller to adjust appropriate parameters and obtain stability; this is achieved after two rounds. In one experiment, subjects with body weights of 74 and 81 kg, respectively, used the electric-powered wheelchair system to move a distance of two meters; in both cases, the system had to adjust suitable PID parameters and remain steady and stable without any offset in linear motion. In the case of the 74 kg subject, the average error for two wheels was 0.65 cm; in the case of the 81 kg subject, it was 0.41 cm.

5.CONCLUSION
This study combines high-order embedded systems with electric-powered wheelchairs. Considering the popularity of smart phones and tablet PCs, this study proposes a system architecture for smart electric-powered wheelchairs. Wheelchair users benefit from a good user interface and interaction, and caregivers may also use their own smartphones or tablet PCs to view their patient’s operational situation and images in real time.
Two microprocessors (i.e. BeagleBoard-xM and STM32F407) are used in the electric-powered wheelchair’s hardware to constitute the entire electrical control system. The more powerful functions and complex work (image transmission, Wi-Fi SoftAP, etc.) are in the charge of BeagleBoard-xM, while STM32F407 is responsible for the control systems of peripherals (wheelchair motor drives, rotary encoders, PID feedback, etc.).
With the electric-powered wheelchair user control interface, participants can use their smartphone/tablet system and make use of Wi-Fi transmission to control the wheelchair. The interface application is Android-based, designed in a lightweight software to achieve the best operating effect and to reduce the burden of application resources.

論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract iii
誌謝 viii
目錄 ix
圖目錄 xii
表目錄 xv
第一章 序論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 論文架構 2
第二章 研究背景與文獻回顧 4
2.1 研究背景 4
2.2 相關研究回顧 6
2.2.1 聲控式手電動輪椅之設計與研發 6
2.2.2 輔助性電腦裝置-摩斯碼訊號輸入 6
2.2.3 嵌入式雙核心平台實現即時前景偵測 9
第三章 系統架構及設計 10
3.1 系統架構 10
3.1.1 系統架構圖 10
3.1.2 電動輪椅硬體組成 11
3.2 電動輪椅系統整合端 - Beagleboard-xM 12
3.2.1 Beagleboard-xM介紹 13
3.2.2 雙核心嵌入式平台ARM與DSP 15
3.2.2.1 ARM(Cortex-A8) 16
3.2.2.2 DSP(TMS320C64x+) 17
3.2.3 Codec-Engine 20
3.2.3.1 Codec-Engine 軟體架構 20
3.2.3.2 共享記憶體配置 21
3.2.4 即時影像傳輸 23
3.2.5 Wi-Fi Soft AP 26
3.2.5.1 Wi-Fi 技術 26
3.2.5.2 工作站模式(station,STA) 27
3.2.5.3 無線基地台模式(SoftAP) 27
3.2.5.4 應用於嵌入式系統 27
3.3 電動輪椅硬體周邊控制端 - STM32F407 29
3.3.1 STM32F407介紹 29
3.3.2 電動輪椅硬體底層控制項目 30
3.3.3 電動輪椅之兩輪平衡控制 31
3.3.3.1 旋轉編碼器 32
3.3.3.2 PID控制器 35
3.4 前控電路之線路轉接板設計 37
3.5 手機/平板電腦之Android應用程式開發 38
3.5.1 Android 應用程式之使用者介面設計 38
3.5.2 Control method 39
3.6 Server端與Client端之指令格式與傳輸機制 40
3.6.1 Client端平板/手機與Server端之溝通機制 40
3.6.2 BeagleBoard-xM與STM32F4之溝通機制 43
3.6.2.1 UART介面 43
第四章 系統整合測試 46
4.1 電動輪椅之兩輪控制測試 46
4.1.1 實驗目的 46
4.1.2 受測者實際乘坐電動輪椅之直行測試 47
4.2 即時影像傳輸測試 51
4.2.1 執行速度分析 51
4.2.2 影像傳送端與接收端速率統計 51
第五章 討論、結論及未來展望 53
5.1 討論 53
5.1.1 電動輪椅系統之兩輪平衡控制 53
5.1.2 Android應用程式之使用者介面效率問題 53
5.2 結論 54
5.3 未來展望 54
參考文獻 56
附錄 59
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