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系統識別號 U0026-1808201219393800
論文名稱(中文) 四週彈力繩訓練對於青少年棒球選手在投球表現上的影響
論文名稱(英文) Effects of a Four-week Elastic Tubing Training on Throwing Performance in Youth Baseball Players
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 物理治療研究所
系所名稱(英) Department of Physical Therapy
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 鄭宏彥
研究生(英文) Hong-Yen Cheng
學號 T66991054
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 145頁
口試委員 指導教授-徐阿田
口試委員-林呈鳳
口試委員-蔡一如
口試委員-張家豪
中文關鍵字 青少年  投球  彈力繩 
英文關鍵字 Youth  Pitching  Elastic tube 
學科別分類
中文摘要 實驗背景與目的:
青少年棒球選手為棒球人口中最大的一個族群,如何增進他們的表現以及降低受傷風險是治療師與運動訓練員需要面對的一項重要課題。彈力繩的低價性與方便性使其使用量在運動訓練上快速增加。然而在過去的文獻中,彈力繩的訓練效果是較少受到注意的,尤其針對青少年棒球選手的訓練效果更是缺乏。因此希望透過本實驗,了解四週的彈力繩訓練對於青少年棒球選手在投球表現上的影響。
實驗方法:
本實驗總共包含前測、訓練期與後測三個階段,整體實驗為期一個月。24名健康青少年棒球選手被平均隨機分配至實驗組與控制組。主要量測項目包括以手持式測力計量測量四肢肌力、以動作分析系統紀錄投球時的動力學參數、以雷達測速槍測量投球速度,並力量感測器與功能性投球表現指數測量投球準確率。訓練組之受試者共接受為期一個月、每週三次的彈力繩訓練課程。訓練計畫內容總共包含了九項運動:手肘伸直與屈曲、肩部水平外展與內收、划船(肩胛骨內收)、於肩關節零度外展下之外轉與內轉、模擬投球姿勢以及反向模擬投球姿勢。
結果:
訓練組與控制組的基本資料並無顯著差異,但整體受試者在投球手之肩部內轉角度明顯少於非投球手,而肩部外轉角度則是投球手明顯多於非投球手,並且在投球手之肩部旋轉總角度明顯少於非投球手。四週訓練後,訓練組的肌力僅有肩部內轉肌力顯著增加,但其餘肌群也呈現增加的趨勢。在球速方面,訓練組的球速產生明顯進步,而控制組則無顯著差異。兩組之投球準度均未達到顯著差異。投球機制中,動力學參數部分於訓練組之肩部內轉最大角速度及角加速度、肩部內收最大角速度及角加速度、肘關節最大伸直角速度與肩部內轉最大角速度的發生時間均產生顯著改變。
結論:
青少年選手於投球手所產生之肩部旋轉總角度減少,可能原因來自於尚未成熟的肌肉骨骼發育以及肱骨適應性向後扭轉不足。四週訓練後,肌力僅於內轉肌群產生顯著改變,可能原因在於較短的訓練時間使得大部分肌群仍處於神經適應階段,尚未造成肌肉纖維肥大。然而此階段之神經適應以及部分肌力增加已經足以造成訓練組之球速增加。投球準度並未於訓練後產生進步,可能與較短的訓練時間有關,且準度同時受到其他因素(如:本體感覺等)的影響。動力學參數的變化集中於肩部與肘部:內轉肌力的增加造成了內轉角速度及角加速度的增加,而內轉角加速度的增加亦造成了肩部內轉最大角速度的發生時間縮短。肩部內收最大角速度及角加速度與肘關節最大伸直角速度均是受到訓練所造成之神經適應性影響而產生顯著變化。
英文摘要 Background:
Participants in baseball at the youth level constitute approximately 80% of all players. With such great number of youth baseball players, it is highly recommended that trainers and therapists should be knowledgeable in enhancing performance and preventing injuries in youth players. Since elastic tube is inexpensive, excellent in portability and the ease of use, it is one of the best choices for training baseball players. However, there were few studies investigating the training effect of elastic tubing programs on throwing performance, including throwing velocity and throwing accuracy, especially for youth players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the training effect of elastic tubing exercise in youth baseball players on throwing velocity, throwing accuracy and parameters of pitching mechanics.
Methods:
The procedure was subdivided into three parts: pre-test, training and post-test and lasted for four weeks. Twenty-four participants were equally and randomly assigned to the training group or control group. The measurements included muscular strength measured by a hand-held goniometer, kinematic data of pitching collected by a motion-captured system, throwing velocity measured by a calibrated radar gun, and throwing accuracy detected by a force sensor and measuredy by a Functional Throwing Performance Index (FTPI). Players in training group received a four-week elastic tubing training program with three times per week. The program consisted of elbow extension, elbow flexion, horizontal shoulder abduction, reverse chest fly, rowing, internal rotation with shoulder abducted 0⁰, external rotation with shoulder abducted 0⁰, standard throw, and reverse throw.
Result:
The basic data did not show significant differences between groups. However, the range of shoulder internal rotation decreased more in the throwing arm comparing to that in the non-throwing arm. Range of shoulder external rotation was increased in the throwing arm compared with that in the non-throwing arm. The total range of rotation decreased significantly in the throwing arm compared with that in the non-throwing arm. After four-weeks training, muscular strength only showed significant difference in internal rotation while showing a trend of increase in other muscle groups. Throwing velocity in training group improved significantly, but did not show significant change in control group. Throwing accuracy did not show significant difference in both groups. In throwing mechanism, only parameters of maximal angular velocity and acceleration of shoulder internal rotation and horizontal adduction, maximal angular velocity of elbow extension and the time of occurrence of maximal angular velocity of shoulder internal rotation altered after training.
Conclusions:
The decreased total range of rotation in shoulder joint was mainly the results of immaturity of muscular skeletal system and deficit in humeral adaptive retroversion. Four -weeks training only led to significant improvement in internal rotators. The main reason might be the short duration of the training, which only caused neural adaptation instead of muscular hypertrophy. The adaptation; nevertheless, could cause improved throwing velocity in training group. Throwing accuracy did not change significantly in both groups. We may attribute it to short duration in training and other factors affecting throwing accuracy (e.g. proprioception). Kinematics mainly changed significant in parameters of shoulder and elbow. The improved muscular strength caused improved angular velocity and acceleration of internal rotation while the increased angular acceleration also led to decreased time in reaching maximal angular velocity of internal rotation. Since the muscular strength did not improve significantly, we may attribute the improvement of maximal angular velocity and acceleration of shoulder horizontal adduction and maximal angular velocity of elbow extension to the effect of neural adaptation mechanism caused by training.
論文目次 中文摘要 II
ABSTRACT IV
CONTENTS IX
TABLE LIST XIII
FIGURE LIST XVII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Baseball 1
1.2 Throwing Performance 2
1.3 Throwing Performance Enhancement 4
1.3.1 Throwing Mechanism 5
1.3.2 Muscular Strength Strengthening 8
1.4 Motivation and Purpose 16
CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS and METHODS 17
2.1 Subject 17
2.2 Instrument 18
2.3 Experimental Procedures 21
2.4 Data Processing 32
2.5 Phase Definition 37
2.6 Temporal Parameters 38
2.7 Statistical Analyses 39
CHAPTER 3 RESULTS 40
3.1 Basic Data 40
3.2 Passive Range of Motion in ER and IR 41
3.3 Muscular Strength 43
3.4 Reliability of the Force Plate Measurements 45
3.5 Throwing Velocity 46
3.6 Throwing Accuracy 49
3.7 Kinematic Parameters 51
3.7.1 Shoulder Joint 51
3.7.2 Elbow Joint 61
3.7.3 Wrist Joint 64
3.7.4 Upper Torso 68
3.7.5 Pelvis 72
3.7.6 Hand 75
3.8 Kinetic Parameters 77
3.8.1 Shoulder Joint 77
3.8.2 Elbow Joint 77
3.8.3 Wrist Joint 77
3.9 Temporal Parameters 81
3.9.1 Shoulder Joint 81
3.9.2 Elbow Joint 83
3.9.3 Wrist Joint 86
3.9.4 Upper Torso 86
3.9.5 Pelvis 86
3.10 Factors Related to Improvement of Throwing Velocity 88
CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION 90
4.1 Rotational PROM of the Glenohumeral Joint 90
4.2 Muscular Strength 95
4.3 Throwing Velocity 98
4.4 Throwing Accuracy 100
4.5 Kinematic Parameters 105
4.5.1 Shoulder Joint 105
4.5.2 Elbow Joint 106
4.5.3 Wrist Joint 107
4.5.4 Upper Torso 108
4.5.5 Pelvis 109
4.5.6 Hand 110
4.6 Kinetic Parameters 110
4.6.1 Shoulder Joint 110
4.6.2 Elbow Joint 112
4.6.3 Wrist Joint 114
4.7 Temporal Parameters 115
4.7.1 Shoulder Joint 115
4.7.2 Elbow Joint 116
4.7.3 Wrist Joint 117
4.7.4 Upper Torso 117
4.7.5 Pelvis 118
4.8 Limitations 120
4.9 Clinical Relevance 122
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 124
References ..126
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