進階搜尋


 
系統識別號 U0026-1808201116432900
論文名稱(中文) 具邊緣性及依賴性性格特徵大學生之人際衝突知覺與因應歷程
論文名稱(英文) The Perception and Resolution Styles of Conflicts among College Students with Borderline and Dependent Personality Disorder Features
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 行為醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Behavioral Medicine
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 李涵
研究生(英文) Han Lee
學號 s8697104
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 72頁
口試委員 指導教授-柯慧貞
召集委員-陳秀蓉
口試委員-黃惠玲
口試委員-林宜美
中文關鍵字 邊緣性性格障礙特徵  依賴性性格障礙特徵  衝突知覺  衝突解決策略 
英文關鍵字 Borderline personality disorder features  Dependent personality disorder features  Conflict perceptions  Conflict resolutions 
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景:邊緣性性格障礙者主要在人際關係、自我形象、不穩定的情感表現、及衝動行為四大面向上出現的不適應,其中不穩定且緊張的人際關係為邊緣性性格障礙的穩定症狀,許多研究也指出他們在人際衝突下擁有許多不適切的表現。根據文獻回顧,可以發現邊緣性與依賴性性格障礙有很高的共病率,且依賴性性格障礙同樣存在不穩定的人際關係,但兩者在衝突下的知覺及解決策略仍不清楚,需要進一步探討。
此外過去有些個體雖未達臨床上性格障礙的診斷標準,但仍會有不適應的行為表現。過去研究也指出在探討共病的研究中會採四組比較 (兩組單純疾病組、共病組、控制組)的方式探討其中的差異,本研究也將採此研究方法探討個體伴隨邊緣性及依賴性性格障礙特徵者在人際衝突下的知覺及解決策略。

研究方法:(1) 受試者為南部大專院校學生,使用分層與隨機抽樣,共有3,241位學生完成問卷施測,本研究僅將完整填答問卷納入後續分析,共2,605份問卷進行後續分析;(2) 研究工具為個人資料表、邊緣性及依賴性性格障礙特徵問卷、衝突知覺與解決策略量表、神經質量表、衝動性量表、柯氏憂鬱量表;(3) 研究程序上採橫斷研究,為2003年11月起六週時間對所抽樣學生進行問卷調查,並以問卷填答結果將受試者分為以下四組:高邊緣組、高依賴組、雙高組與雙低組;(4) 統計分析利用SPSS視窗15.0版進行描述統計與ANOVA分析。

研究結果:結果顯示高邊緣組、高依賴組、及雙高組在面對衝突時,較傾向將衝突知覺為威脅性的。而在衝突解決策略上,高邊緣組、高依賴組、及雙高組在面對衝突時比起雙低組較傾向使用逃避策略;高邊緣性及雙高組在情緒過度表達策略上得分也顯著高於高依賴組及雙低組;在順從策略上,高依賴組及雙高組顯著高於雙低組,高邊緣組及高依賴組在順從策略上則無顯著差異;而在問題解決策略方面,僅雙低組得分顯著高於高依賴組。

結論及建議:本研究探討個體伴隨高邊緣性及高依賴性障礙特徵者在人際衝突下的知覺及解決策略,釐清兩者衝突知覺及解決策略的差異,未來可進一步應用於臨床上治療個案,改善其在衝突下的威脅性知覺,並減少負向的衝突解決策略使用,增加問題解決策略使用。
英文摘要 This study was designed to examine the perception and resolution styles toward conflicts among 222 college students with borderline personality disorder features only (B+ group), 341 with dependent personality disorder features only (D+ group), 259 comorbid with borderline and dependent disorders features (Comorbidity) and 1783 healthy controls (Control group). 2605 college students were recruited and self-reported measures were administered. Based on the cut-off scores on Borderline and Dependent Personality Features Questionnaire, the B+, D+, comorbidity and control groups were identified. The results showed that the B+, D+, and comorbidity groups more likely to perceive conflict as threatening and use avoidance style of conflict resolution than the control group. The B+ and comorbidity groups reported higher levels of fighting than the D+ group, while the D+ and comorbidity groups revealed increased levels of conflict volatility than did the control group.
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 IV
目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
附錄目錄 X
第一章 研究背景 1
第一節 邊緣性性格障礙 1
壹、邊緣性性格障礙的診斷準則 2
貳、邊緣性性格障礙的人際適應 2
参、小結 3
第二節 依賴性性格障礙 4
壹、依賴性性格障礙的診斷準則 4
貳、依賴性性格障礙的人際適應 4
参、小結 5
第三節 人際衝突的知覺與解決策略 5
壹、人際衝突的定義 5
貳、人際衝突知覺的定義與測量 6
参、人際衝突解決策略的定義與測量 7
第四節 邊緣性及依賴性性格障礙特徵者的人際衝突知覺與解決策略 8
壹、邊緣性性格障礙者的人際衝突知覺 9
貳、邊緣性性格障礙者的人際衝突解決策略 9
参、依賴性性格障礙者的人際衝突知覺 10
肆、依賴性性格障礙者的人際衝突解決策略 10
伍、小結 11
第五節 研究目的與假設 12
壹、研究目的 12
貳、研究假設 12
第二章 研究方法 13
第一節 參與者 13
第二節 研究工具 14
壹、個人資料表 14
貳、簡式衝動量表 14
参、五大因素量表中文化簡版 15
肆、柯氏憂鬱量表 16
伍、邊緣性及依賴性性格障礙特徵問卷 17
陸、衝突知覺及解決策略量表 18
第三節 研究程序 21
第四節 統計分析 22
壹、基本資料分析 22
貳、邊緣性及依賴性性格障礙特徵問卷之效標效度 22
参、人際衝突知覺類型及解決策略分析 22
第三章 研究結果 23
第一節 基本資料及各變項之分析 23
第二節 衝突知覺類型及衝突解決策略 24
第四章 討論、結論與建議 26
第一節 討論 26
壹、本研究之性格障礙特徵問卷效標效度 26
貳、個體伴隨邊緣性性格障礙特徵之威脅性衝突知覺 26
参、個體伴隨依賴性性格障礙特徵之威脅性衝突知覺 27
肆、個體伴隨邊緣性性格障礙特徵之建設性衝突知覺 27
伍、個體伴隨依賴性性格障礙特徵之建設性衝突知覺 28
陸、逃避之人際衝突解決策略 28
柒、情緒過度表達之人際衝突解決策略 28
捌、順從之人際衝突解決策略 29
玖、問題解決之人際衝突解決策略 30
拾、雙高組在人際衝突知覺及解決策略上的表現 30
第二節 研究限制與貢獻 31
壹、研究限制 31
一、性格障礙的診斷取向 31
二、自陳式量表 31
三、橫斷式研究 32
四、量表信效度 32
貳、研究貢獻 32
一、理論貢獻 32
二、應用貢獻 33
第五章 參考文獻 34

表目錄
表一、邊緣性性格障礙在DSM-IV之診斷準則 46
表二、依賴性性格障礙在DSM-IV之診斷準則 47
表三、四組在各變項的差異 48
表三、四組在各變項的差異 (續) 49
表四、四組在神經質、衝動性、憂鬱、及性格障礙特徵得分差異 50
表五、四組在神經質、衝動性、憂鬱、及性格障礙特徵得分的事後比較結果51
表六、邊緣性及依賴性性格障礙特徵與神經質、衝動性、憂鬱的相關 52
表七、四組在人際衝突知覺及解決策略的差異 53
表八、四組在人際衝突知覺及解決策略的事後比較結果 54

附錄目錄
附錄一、同意書 55
附錄二、個人資料表 56
附錄三、簡式衝動量表 61
附錄四、五大因素量表中文簡化版 62
附錄五、柯氏憂鬱量表 64
附錄六、邊緣性性格障礙特徵量表 69
附錄七、依賴性性格障礙特徵量表 70
附錄八、衝突解決量表 71
參考文獻 中華民國教育統計指標 (民91)。高等教育-九十學年度大專院校學生數分析。台北市:教育部。
李進賢、柯慧貞、翁儷禎、廖聆岑、陸汝斌 (民91)。衝動性量表的發展:心理計量特性及其與反社會性格障礙之關係。中華心理學刊,44,109-119。
柯慧貞 (民78)。內因性與非內因性憂鬱症在腎上腺皮質素抑制反應、認知偏差及生活壓力上之比較。台北市:國立台灣大學心理學研究所博士論文。
柯慧貞 (民90)。酒癮的戒癮治療模式之探討:Naltrexone與心理治療之結合。行政院衛生署,科技研究發展計畫。計畫編號:DOH89-TD-1111。
高振傑 (民92)。反社會性格疾患與藥物依賴男性受刑人在性格特質向度之比較。台南市:國立成功大學行為醫學研究所碩士論文。
陳美琴 (民88)。Development and validation of the NEO PI-R for a Taiwanese sample, progress in Asian Social Psychology volume II, Kyoyook-Kwahak-sa? Publishing Company, 105-118。
賴雅純 (民95)。成人依附類型與人際衝突事件及其衝突知覺與解決策略對大學生憂鬱的影響。台南市: 國立成功大學行為醫學研究所碩士論文。
簡良霖 (民95)。大學生之家庭功能與性格對憂鬱症狀的影響。台南市:國立成功大學行為醫學研究所碩士論文。
Agrawal, H. R., Gunderson, J. G., Holmes, B. M., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2004). Attachment studies with borderline patients: A review. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12, 94–104.
American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed. Text Revision). Washington DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4rd ed. Text Revision). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Ayduk, O., Zayas, V., Downey, G., Cole, A. B., Shoda, Y., & Mischel, W. (2008). Rejection sensitivity and executive control: Joint predictors of borderline personality features. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 151-168.
Barratt, E. S., Stanford, M. S., Kent, T. A., & Felthous, A. (1997). Neuropsychological and cognitive psychophysiological substrates of impulsive aggression. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 1045-1061.
Beck, A., & Freeman, A. (1990). Cognitive therapy of the personality disorders. New York: Guilford.
Berns, S. B. Jacobson, N. S., & Gottman, J. M. (1999). Demand-Withdraw interaction in couples with a violent husband. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(5), 666-674.
Bland, A. R., Williams, C. A., Scharer K., & Manning, S. (2004). Emotion processing in borderline personality disorders. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 25, 655-672.
Bornstein, R. F. (1992). The dependent personality: Developmental, social, and clinical perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 3-23.
Bray, J. H., & Jouriles, E. (1995). Treatment of marital conflict and prevention of divorce. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 21, 461-473.
Brennan, K. A., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Attachment styles and personality disorders: Their connections to each other and to parental divorce, parental death, and perceptions of parental caregiving personal relationships. Journal of Personality, 66(5), 835-878.
Broome, B. J. (1993). Managing differences in conflict resolution: The role of relationship empathy. In. Sandole, D. J. D. & Merwe, H. (Eds.), Conflict resolution theory and practice (pp.97-111). New York: Manchester University Press.
Caseras, X., Torrubia, R. & Farre, J. M. (2001). Is the behavioral inhibition system the core vulnerability for cluster C personality disorders? Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 349-359.
Chen, M. -C. & Piedmont, R. L. (1999). Development and validation of the NEO-PI-R for a Taiwanese sample (Eds). Progress in Asian Social Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 105-119). Seoul: Kyoyook-Kwahak-Sa.
Chien, L. -L., Ko, H. -C., & Wu, J. Y. -W. (2007). The five-factor model of personality and depressive symptoms: One-year follow-up. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1013-1023.
Chiu, S. H., Ko, H. C., & Wu, J. Y. (2007). Depression moderated the effect of exposure to suicide news on suicidality among college students in Taiwan. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 37, 585-92.
Clark, L. A. (1989). The anxiety and depressive disorders: Descriptive psychopathology and differential diagnosis. In P. C. Kendall & D. Watson (Eds.), Anxiety and depression: Distinctive and overlapping features (pp. 83-129). New York: Academic Press.
Costa, P. T. J., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory and NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Cowdry, R. W., Pickar, D., & Davis, D. (1988). Pharmacotherapy of Borderline Personality Disorder: Alprazolam, Carbamazepine, Trifluoperazine, and Tranylcypromine. Archivesof General Psychiatry, 45, 111-119.
Cupach, W. R. (2000). Advancing understanding about relational conflict. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 17, 697-411.
Davila, J., & Beck, J. G. (2001). Is social anxiety associated with impairment in close relationships? A preliminary investigation. Behavior Therapy, 33, 427-446.
Drapeau, M., & Perry, C. (2009). The core conflictual relationship themes (CCRT) in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 23(4), 425-431.
Duck, S. (1988). Relating to others. Chicago: Dorsey.
Edwards, G., Barkley, R. A., Laneri, M., Fletcher, K., &
Metevia, L. (2001). Parent–adolescent conflict in teenagers with ADHD and ODD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 557−572.
Fu, A. T., Ko, H. C., & Wu, J. Y. (2007). Impulsivity and expectancy in risk for alcohol use: comparing male and female college students in Taiwan. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 1887-1896.
Glenn, C. R. & Klonsky, D. (2009). Emotion dysregulation as a core feature of borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 23(1), 20–28.
Goodman, M., New, A. S., Triebwasser, J., Collins, K., & Siever, L. (2010). Phenotype, endophenotype, and genotype comparisons between borderline personality disorder and major depressive disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 24 (1), 38-59.
Gottman, J. M. (1994). What predicts divorce? The relationship between marital processess and marital outcomes. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gottman, J. M., & Krokoff, L. J. (1989). Marital interaction and satisfaction: A longitudinal view. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 47-52.
Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (1992). Marital processes predictive of later dissolution: Behavior, Physiology, and Health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 221-233.
Gratz, K. L., Latzman, R. D., & Tull, M. T. (2011). Exploring the association between emotional abuse and childhood borderline personality features: The moderating role of personality traits. Behavior Therapy, 42, 493-508.
Gunderson, J. G., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2008). BPD's interpersonal hypersensitivity phenotype: A guide-environment-developmental model. Journal personality disorders, 22(1), 22-41.
Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. R. (1994a). Attachment as an organizational framework for research on close relationship. Psychological Inquiry, 5, 1-22.
Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. R. (1994b). Deeper into attachment theory. Psychological Inquiry, 5, 68-79.
Henrya, C., Mitropoulouc, V., Newc, A. S., Koenigsbergc, H.
W., Silvermanc, J., & Siever, L. J. (2001). Affective instability and impulsivity in borderline personality and bipolar II disorders: similarities and differences. Journal of Psychiatry Research, 35, 307-312.
Jaffee,W. B., & D'Zurilla, T. J. (2003). Adolescent problem solving, parent problem solving, and externalizing behavior in adolescents. Behavior Therapy, 34, 295-311.
Jensen, P. S., Martin, D., & Cantwell, D. P. (1997). Comorbidity in ADHD: Implications for Research, Practice, and DSM-V. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(8), 1065-1079.
John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The big five trait taxonomy: History, Measurement, and Theoretical Personality. In Pervin, L.A. & John, O.P. (Eds.), Handbook of personality-theory and research (pp.102-138). New York: The Guilford Press.
Joyce, P. R., Mulder, R. T., Luty, S. E., McJenzie, J. M., Sullivan, P. F., & Cloninger, R. C. (2003). Borderline personality disorder in major depression: Symptomatology, temperament, character, differential drug response, and 6-month outcome. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 44(1), 35-43.
Kayser, K. (1993). When love dies: The process of marital disaffection. New York: Guilford.
Klein, R. C. A., & Lamm, H. (1996). Legitimate interest in couple conflict. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 13, 619-626.
Ko, H. -C. (2000). Enhanced Alcoholism Treatment Strategies: Naltrexone and Psychotherapy (Report No. DOH89-TD-1111). Taipei, Taiwan (R. O. C.): Department of Health, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (TAIWAN).
Koenigsberg, H. W., Harvey, P. D., Mitropoulou, V. M., Schmeidler, J. New, A. S., Goodman, M., Silverman, J. M., Serby, M., Schopick, F., & Siever, L. J. (2002). Characterizing Affective Instability in Borderline Personality Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 784-788.
Kurdek, L. A. (1994). Conflict resolution styles in gay, lesbian, heterosexual nonparent, and heterosexual parent couples. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 705-722.
Kurdek, L. A. (1995). Predicting change in marital satisfaction from husbands' and wives' conflict resolution styles. Journal of Marriage and Family, 57, 153-164.
Kurdek, L. A. (1996). The deterioration of relationship quality for gay and lesbian cohabiting couples: A 5-year prospective longitudinal study. Personal Relationships, 3, 417-442.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Leihener, F., Wagner, A., Haaf, B., Schmidt, C., Lieb, K., Stieglitz, R., & Bohus, M. (2003). Subtype differentiation of patients with borderline personality disorder using circumplex model of interpersonal behavior. The Journal of
Nervous and Mental Disease, 191(4), 248-254.
Leising, D., Sporberg, D., & Rehbein, D. (2006). Characteristic interpersonal behavior in dependent and avoidant personality disorder can be observed within very short interaction sequences. Journal of personality disorders, 20(4), 319-330.
Lenzenweger, M. F., Lane, M. C., Loranger, A. W., & Kessler, R. C. (2007). DSM-IV personality disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 553–564.
Leveridge, M. M. (1998). The relationship of attachment to personality factors and family interaction patterns. Dissertation abstracts international: Section B: the sciences & engineering, 58, 6815.
Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.
Loas G., Cormier, J., & Perex-Diaz, F. (2011). Dependent personality disorder and physical abuse. Psychiatry Research, 185, 167-170.
Maltby, J., Macaskill, A., & Gillett, R. (2007). The cognitive nature of forgiveness: Using cognitive strategies of primary appraisal and coping describe the process of forgiving. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63(6), 555-566.
Markowitz, J. C., Skodol, A. E., & Bleiberg, K. (2006). Interpersonal psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: Possible mechanisms of change. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(4), 431-444.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. J. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81-90.
McGlashan, T. H., Grilo, C. M., Skodol, A. E., Gunderson, J. G. Shea, M. T., Morey, L. C., Zanarini, M. C., & Stout, R. L. (2000). The collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study: baseline Axis I/II and II/II diagnostic co-occurrence. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 256-264.
McLean, L. M., & Gallop, R. (2003). Implications of childhood sexual abuse for adult borderline personality disorder and complex posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 369-371.
Meyer, B., Pilkonis, P. A., & Beevers, C. G. (2004). What’s in a (neutral) face? Personality disorders, attachment styles, patients and the appraisal of ambiguous social cues. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18, 320-336.
Nigg, J. T., Lohr, N. E., Westen, D., Gold, L., & Silk, K. R. (1992). Malevolent object representations in borderline personality disorder and major depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101(1), 61-67.
Overholser, J. C. (1996). The dependent personality and interpersonal problems. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184(1), 8-16.
Paris, J. (2010). Estimating the prevalence of personality disorders in the community. Journal of Personality Disorders, 24(4), 405-411.
Peterson, D. R. (1983). Conflict. In. Kelly, H. H., Berscheid, E., Christensen, A., Harvey, J. H., Huston, T. L., Levinger, G., et al. (Eds.), Close relationships (pp. 360-396). New York: Freeman.
Pistole, M. C. (1989). Attachment in adult romantic relationships: Style of conflict resolution and relationship staisfaction. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 6, 505-510.
Pistole, M. C., & Arricale, F. (2003). Understanding attachment: Beliefs about conflict. Journal of Counseling and Development, 81, 318-328.
Rodebaugh, T. L., Gianoli, M. O., Turkheimer, E. &
Oltmanns, T. F. (2010). The interpersonal problems of the socially avoidant: Self and peer shared variance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(2), 331-340.
Rubenstein, J. L., & Feldman, S. S. (1993). Conflict-resolution behavior in adolescent boys: Antecedents and adaptational correlates. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 3, 41-66.
Rubin, K. H., & Rose-Krasnor, L. (1992). Interpersonal problem-solving and social competence in children. New York, NY: Plenum.
Ryan, K., & Shean, G. (2007). Patterns of interpersonal behaviors and borderline personality characteristics. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 193-200.
Samuels, J., Eaton, W. W., Bienvenu, J., Clayton, P.,
Brown, H., & Costa, P. T. (2002). Prevalence and correlates of personality disorders in a community sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 536–542.
Sanfoed, K. (2010). Perceived threat and perceived neglect: Couples' underlying concerns during conflict. Psychological Assessment. 22(2), 288-297.
Schmahl, C. G., & Bremner, J. D. (2006). Neuroimaging in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 40, 419-427.
Schmahl, C. G., Elzinga, B. M., Vermetten, E., Sanislow, C., McGlashan, T. H., & Bremner, J. D. (2003). Neural correlates of memories of abandonment in women with and without borderline personality disorder. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 54, 142-151.
Scott, L. N., Levy, K. N., & Pincus, A. L. (2009). Adult attachment, personality traits, and borderline personality disorder features in young adults. Journal of Personality Disorders, 23(3), 258-280.
Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S., & Phillips, D. (1996). Conflict in close relationship: An attachment perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 899-914.
Sperry, L. (2003). Handbook of Diagnosis and Treatment of DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Tolpin, L. H., Gunthert, K. C., Cohen, L. H., & O’Neill, S. C. (2004). Borderline personality features and instability of daily negative affect and self-Esteem. Journal of Personality, 72, 111-138.
Torgersen, S., Kringlen, E., & Cramer, V. (2001). The prevalence of personality disorders in a community sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 590–596.
Tucker, C. J., McHale, S. M., & Crouter, A. C. (2003). Conflict resolution: Links with adolescents' family relationships and individual well-being. Journal of Family Issues, 24, 715-736.
Trull, T. J. (1995). Borderline personality disorder features in nonclinical young adults: 1. Identification and validation. Psychological Assessment, 7, 33–41.
Welch, S. S., & Linehan, M. M. (2002). High-risk situations associated with parasuicide and drug use in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disoreders, 16(6), 561-569.
Widiger, T. A. (1991). Personality disorder dimensional models proposed for DSM-IV. Journal of Personality Disorders, 5(4), 386-398.
Yarn, D. H. (Ed.). (1999). Dictionary of conflict resolution. San Francisco: Calif.
Zanarini, M. C. (2005). Bordeline personality disorder. Taylor & Francis Group: LLC.
Zanarini, M. C., Frankenburg, F. R., Hennen, J., & Silk, K. R. (2003). The longitudinal course of borderline psychopathology: 6-Year prospective follow-up of the phenomenology of borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 274-283.
Zanarini, M. C., Frankenburg, F. R. Vujanovic, A. A., Hennen, J., Reich, D. B., & Silk, K. R. (2004). Axis II comorbidity of borderline personality disorder: description of 6-year course and prediction to time-to-remission. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 110, 416-420.
Zimmerman, M., Rothschild, L., & Chelminski, I. (2005). The prevalence of DSM-IV personality disorders in psychiatric outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(10), 1911-1918.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2013-09-04起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2013-09-04起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw