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系統識別號 U0026-1808201112550800
論文名稱(中文) 邊緣和尾弧前陸盆地構造演化模式-台灣西南部和北安地斯山脈比較研究
論文名稱(英文) Models of Tectonic Evolution for Peripheral and Retroarc Foreland Basins — Comparative Study of Southwestern Taiwan and Northern Andes
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 鄭伊雯
研究生(英文) I-Wen Cheng
學號 L46981066
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 137頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊耿明
召集委員-鄧屬予
口試委員-林殿順
口試委員-吳榮章
中文關鍵字 台灣西南部  北安地斯  邊緣盆地  尾弧盆地  正斷層 
英文關鍵字 Southwestern Taiwan  North Andes  peripheral basin  retroarc basin  normal fault 
學科別分類
中文摘要 前陸盆地分為兩種類型,位於弧陸或陸陸碰撞帶下伏板塊之上的前陸盆地稱為邊緣盆地,位於隱沒帶上行大陸地殼板塊弧後的前陸盆地稱為尾弧盆地。本研究利用井下地層資料建立台灣西南部和北安地斯山(哥倫比亞)Llanos前陸盆地地體構造下沉歷史以及盆地形貌演化,並比較邊緣盆地和尾弧盆地地體構造下沉以及盆地演化模式的差異。
台灣位於菲律賓海板塊和歐亞大陸板塊聚合型交界處,構造演化為由東南向西北方之斜向弧-陸碰撞,並於上新世早期開始在造山帶西側形成前陸盆地,屬邊緣性前陸盆地。台灣西南部造山帶前緣和前凸起陸域位置的前陸盆地發育許多條東西走向正斷層。北安地斯造山帶之發育始於侏儸紀晚期北美板塊向東隱沒至太平洋板塊下方,造山帶東側的前陸盆地有很長的發育歷史(起自第三紀早期),最近一期造山帶-前陸盆地發育始於中新世中期,造山帶東側Llanos前陸盆地位於隱沒帶上板塊位置,盆地類型屬尾弧盆地。
台灣西南部前陸盆地構造下沉曲線顯示幾個特徵:1.同一時期的構造下沉速度向陸台方向遞減;2.當靠近盆地中心的構造下沉速度增加之同時,靠近陸台方向的構造下沉速度降低,例如進入上新世早期和更新世早期靠近造山帶近端構造快速下沉,往遠端方向下沉速度降低;上新世晚期和更新世晚期,造山帶近端構造下沉速度降低,遠端方向構造下沉速度增加。正斷層活動歷史可看見幾個特徵:1.不論構造下沉期或是抬升期,正斷層都持續活動。2.正斷層較密集區域的構造下沉量較大,下沉速度也比較快。3.正斷層多和正斷層少區域的構造下沉曲線,下沉量區域變化趨勢沒有明顯差異。
哥倫比亞Llanos盆地第三紀構造下沉曲線顯示幾個特徵:1.研究區域內下沈量和下沈速率朝陸台方向遞減;2.不論距離造山帶遠近,研究區域內各地第三紀指示最近一期造山帶-前陸盆地發育的快速下沉時間皆一致。3.下沉速率快慢落差較台灣西南部不明顯。
將邊緣盆地和尾弧盆地做比較,得知兩種盆地的差異:1.台灣西南部前陸盆地前凸起有來回移動現象,而哥倫比亞Llanos盆地的自漸新世早期至中新世中期前凸起一直幾乎固定不變,直到最近一次逆衝斷層活動,盆地遠端邊緣位置始明顯向陸台位移;2.台灣西南部前陸盆地初期構造下沉年代往陸臺方向越來越年輕,而哥倫比亞Llanos盆地至中新世中期各地一致發生快速下沉。
典型前陸盆地和非典型前陸盆地的發育在於:非典型前陸盆地的構造下沉量、構造下沉速度、層序架構,和盆地邊緣位置都受前期地殼張裂構造的影響,但盆地下沉量的區域變化趨勢仍受到造山帶荷重的影響。
英文摘要 Foreland basins can be grouped into two types, the peripheral basin, which is located on the underriding plate in an arc-continental or continent-continental collision zone, and the other one, the retroarc basin, which is located on the backarc area of the overriding plate in a subduction zone. In this study, we used well data to establish the model of tectonic subsidence and evolution of the foreland basins in southwestern Taiwan and Llanos Basin to the east of northern Andes(Columbia) and to make the comparison between the models of tectonic subsidence and evolution of foreland basins in peripheral basin and retroarc basin.
Taiwan is located at the convergent boundary between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates, which is an oblique collision zone propagating toward the south. The peripheral foreland basin developed to west of the orogenic belt in early Pliocene. There are many east-west trending normal faults between the front of orogrnic belt and the forebuldge. Northern Andes developed in late Jurassic when the North American Plate subducted to the Pacific Plate. The retroarc foreland basin that is located to the east of the orogenic belt had a long developed history (from early Tertiary). The latest stage of orogenic belt – foreland basin started to develop in Middle Miocene and formed the Llanos Basin to the east of the orogenic belt
The tectonic subsidence curves of the foreland basin in southwestern Taiwan show that : 1, the tectonic subside rate decrease toward the forebuldge ; 2, the tectonic subsidinge rate is decreasing toward the forebuldge. The expansion index of the normal fault show that: 1, normal faults were active both in the ages of rapid tectonic subsidence and uplift ; 2, the distal part of the foreland basin had been more influenced by the normal faulting and thus encountered much magnitude of tectonic subsidence than the area in the front of orogenic belt ; 3, the tectonic subsidence model in the distal part of the foreland basin is the same as that in the front of orogenic belt.
The tectonic subsidence curves of foreland basin in northern Andes show that: 1, there has the same age of rapid tectonic subsidence in entire basin. 2, The tectonic subside velocity in northern Andes is lower than in southwestern Taiwan.
The major difference between the atypical and typical foreland basin is that in the former the tectonic subsidence magnitude and rate, stratigraphy architecture and location of basin margin are highly influenced by the previous crustal extension. Nonetheless, the basin development eventually is affected by the movement in the adjacent orogenic belt
論文目次 中文摘要……………………………………………………………………I
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………..III
致謝…………………………………………………………………………V
目錄………………………………………………………………………..VI
表目錄……………………………………………………………………..IX
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………X
第一章 前言
1. 1研究目的 15
1. 2區域地質 17
1.2. 1台灣西南部 17
1.2. 2北安地斯山(哥倫比亞) 21
1. 3區域研究 24
1.3. 1台灣西南部 24
1.3. 2北安地斯山脈前陸盆地 25
第二章 研究方法
2. 1構造下沉曲線的建立 28
2.1. 1解壓密(Decompaction) 28
2.1. 2反剝法(Backstripping) 30
2.1.2. 1沉積物荷重 30
2.1.2. 2全球海平面變化 31
2.1.2. 3構造下沉量 32
2. 2正斷層增厚指數(Expansion Index:E.I.) 36
第三章 台灣西南部前陸盆地發育歷史
3. 1構造下沉曲線 37
3. 2正斷層活動歷史 53
3. 3台灣西南部前陸盆地演化歷史 61
第四章 北安地斯山前陸盆地發育歷史
4. 1構造下沉曲線和下沉速率 64
4. 2北安地斯山(哥倫比亞)前陸盆地演化歷史 73
第五章 討論
5. 1台灣西南部前陸盆地 76
5.1. 1下沉曲線結果和前人結果差異 76
5.1. 2正斷層活動對前陸盆地下沉量和下沉速度影響 79
5.1. 3盆地邊界移動歷史 83
5. 2北安地斯山(哥倫比亞)Llanos盆地 84
5.2. 1構造下沉曲線和構造下沉速度分析 84
5.2. 2盆地演化分析 84
5.2. 3盆地邊界移動歷史 84
5. 3邊緣前陸盆地和尾弧前陸盆地比較 86
5. 4邊緣前陸盆地和尾弧前陸盆地的特徵和前人結果的差異 86
第六章 結論....................................89
參考文獻..........................................90
附錄A台灣西南部前陸盆地下沉曲線.....................96
附錄B Llanos盆地下沉曲線...........................122
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