進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-1807201911285000
論文名稱(中文) 帷幕牆系統防火性能及建築外牆火焰延燒分析
論文名稱(英文) Analysis on Fire Resistance of Curtain Wall System and Flame Spread of Building Exterior Wall
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 機械工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical Engineering
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 黃俊諭
研究生(英文) Chun-Yu Huang
學號 N16064153
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 113頁
口試委員 指導教授-林大惠
口試委員-蔡綽芳
口試委員-蔡銘儒
口試委員-雷明遠
口試委員-陳俊貴
中文關鍵字 帷幕牆系統  層間塞  防火性能測試  隔熱外牆  延燒 
英文關鍵字 Curtain wall systems  perimeter joint protection  fire resistance performance  exterior thermal insulation wall system  flame spread 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在高樓火災發生的時候,阻止火焰的垂直延燒能夠有效減少生命與財產的損失,在裝有帷幕牆系統的建築中,火焰延燒的路徑主要為沿著外牆以及穿過外牆與樓板間的層間縫隙延燒至上方樓層,安裝於層間縫隙的層間塞扮演著重要的防火阻隔。在隔熱外牆系統中,安裝在主結構牆以及外牆板之間的隔熱材料也會影響火災發生時的延燒現象。本研究進行了帷幕牆系統的防火性能試驗以及外牆隔熱材料的延燒試驗,帷幕牆系統防火試驗使用了常見的直橫料鋁帷幕牆系統根據CNS 16071試驗,試驗結果層間塞擁有58分鐘40秒的阻熱性能,遮焰性則擁有1小時40分鐘的防火時效,在試驗進行到1小時40分鐘時,因為燃燒器流率超過了規定的校正試驗1.3倍流率,之後的試驗結果不予分析,與先前的試驗相比,本次試體在部分設計進行了修改並新增了斷氣板,在遮焰性有明顯的提升。
隔熱外牆的延燒試驗部分,本研究選擇了5種不同的聚苯乙烯與4種聚胺脂產品,先進行了圓錐量熱儀試驗,試驗結果除了PU1與PU2分別通過耐燃1級與耐燃3級測試,其他試體皆未達耐燃3級,延燒試驗選擇了兩種聚苯乙烯與兩種聚胺脂產品進行小尺度的延燒試驗,討論在不同試驗條件下的延燒情形,並使用熱像儀來分析延燒現象。試驗結果得出,聚苯乙烯產品在實際火災發生時,熔解滴落的聚苯乙烯可能會造成下方的火勢加劇並且向下延燒,通過耐燃1級的PU1在試驗過程中皆無延燒現象發生,PU3試體在引燃之後會穩定地燃燒並且有向上延燒的現象發生。
英文摘要 The fire resistance performance of curtain wall systems played a crucial role in preventing loss in property and human life, especially in high rise fires. When a fire occurs, it will spread to the room above in two ways: propagating on the exterior wall surface of the wall, and penetrating through a joint between a vertical wall and the floor slab. Perimeter joint protection serves a fire barrier to preventing fire from spreading. In exterior thermal insulation system, combustible thermal insulation material lead to potential fire risk. In this study, a full scale fire resistance performance test of a curtain wall system and a reduced scale flame spread test of thermal insulation material were conducted. A commercial stick system aluminum curtain wall system was tested. The specimen’s fire resistance was determined to be 58 minutes and 40 seconds based on the T-rating, and 1 hour and 40 minutes based on the F-rating. After 1 hour and 40 minutes, the gas flow rate exceeded the limit, so the test result could not be analyzed. Compared with previous test, the design of the test specimen was modified and a gas barrier was added. The fire resistance of the test specimen was found to be enhanced. In tests with thermal insulation materials, 5 polystyrene products and 4 polyurethane were tested with cone calorimeter first. The results showed that only PU_1 met the requirements for inflammability grade 1. Other products could not met the requirements for inflammability grade 3. 2 polystyrene and 2 polyurethane products were tested in the flame spread test. The results showed that, melted polystyrene products can lead to the downward flame spread and to intensification of a fire. In the tests with PU_1, no flame spread phenomenon was observed. In the test with PU3, after being ignited, PU3 burned steadily, spread upward and posed a danger to the upper floor.
論文目次 Contents I
List of Tables III
List of Figures IV
1. Introduction 1
1.1. High Rise Building in Fires 1
1.1.1. Curtain Wall System in Fires 1
1.1.2. Exterior Thermal Insulation Systems in Fires 6
1.2. Standard Fire Test Method in Taiwan 11
1.3. Motivation and Objectives of Study 12
2. Experimental Apparatus and Method 13
2.1. Curtain Wall System Test Method 13
2.1.1. Test Apparatus and Burners 13
2.1.2. Specimen Test 14
2.2. Flame Spread on Thermal Insulation Material 18
2.2.1. Cone Calorimeter Test 18
2.2.2. Flame Spread Experimental Apparatus 19
2.2.3. Flame spread test analysis method 20
3. Results and Discussions 22
3.1. Curtain Wall System Test 22
3.1.1. Specimen test 22
3.1.2. Comparison with Previous Tests 25
3.2. Flame Spread on Thermal Insulation Material 28
3.2.1. Cone Calorimeter Test 28
3.2.2. Flame Spread Test 30
4. Conclusions 36
5. Reference 37
6. Tables and Figures 45
7. Appendix 94


參考文獻 [1] D. Yeomans, “The Origins of the Modern Curtain Wall,” APT Bulletin, vol. 32, pp. 13-18, 2001.
[2] C.K. Lee, “Application Research on Model of Curtain Wall Project Management System,” Unpublished master dissertation, Department of Construction and Spacial Design, Tungnan University, New Taipei City, Taiwan, 2011.
[3] B. H. Kuo, “Introduction of Curtain Walls,” The Curtain Wall Blog of Piin Zan Facade Consultant Ltd., ed, 2009.
[4] Construction and Planning Agency, “Building Technical Regulations,” Taiwan, 2018.
[5] C. F. Tsai, T. H. Lin, M. Y. Lei, M. J. Tsai, C. H. Wu, S. K. Lee, W. C. Hu, and Y. L. Liou, “The Study of Fire Spread Characteristics of Curtain Wall Surface,” Ministry of the Interior Research Project Report, Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of the Interior, R.O.C., 2016.
[6] T. S. Chen, “A Study of the Zoning Mode on Unitized Curtain Wall System: The case study of Hili 42-Story Building,” Unpublished master dissertation, Department of Architecture, Tamkang University, New Taipei City, Taiwan, 2002.
[7] C. M. Chen, R. G. Wang, and N. C. Shi, “The Establishment of Curtain Wall Building Regulations,” Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of the Interior, R.O.C., 1992.
[8] R. L. Chen, T. H. Lin, M. Y. Lei, T. C. Wang, H. C. Su, C. K. Chen, W. C. Hu, and Y. L. Liou, “Studies on the Fire Resistance of Building Integrated Photovoltaics,” Ministry of the Interior Research Project Report, Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of the Interior, R.O.C., 2015.

[9] C. Y. Hsueh, “A Research on the Tolerance Control on the Construction of Point Supported Glass Curtain Wall in Taiwan,” Unpublished master dissertation, Department of Architecture, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan, 2002.
[10] H. S. Inc, “The Fire Challenge of Babel (2): Types of High-Rises and Fire Safety Designs,” HEX Fire Safety, 2016
[11] H. S. Inc., “The Fire Challenge of Babel (2): Fire Risks of High-Rises,” HEX Fire Safety., 2016
[12] “First Interstate Bank Fire,” Los Angeles Fire Department, US, 1988, [Online]. Available: http://www.lafire.com/famous_fires/1988-0504_1stInterstateFire/050488_InterstateFire.htm.
[13] “Chicago High-rise Fire Injures 37,” CNN.com, US, 2004, [Online]. Available: http://edition.cnn.com/2004/US/12/06/chicago.fire/.
[14] A. Jacobs, “Fire Ravages Renowned Building in Beijing,” The New York Times, ed. New York, U.S.A., 2009.
[15] M. Farrer and L. Barney, “Honolulu Fire: Three Dead after Blaze Breaks out in High-rise Building,” The Guardian, ed. UK, 2017.
[16] D. Millward and J. Winch, “Dubai Hotel Fire: Inferno at 63-storey Address Downtown Hotel near New Year's Eve Fireworks Display,” The Telegraph, ed. UK, 2016.
[17] S. Almasy and A. Felton, “Dubai's Torch Tower catches fire -- again,” CNN.com, ed. US, 2017.
[18] C. F. Chiu, “東帝士摩天大廈大火 工讀生受困25樓獲救,” Liberty Times Net, ed, 2001.
Available: http://old.ltn.com.tw/2001/new/jul/1/today-c1.htm
[19] “延燒35小時 汐止東科大火 逾200廠商受創,” China Times, ed. Taiwan, 2001.
Available: https://lkk54228.blogspot.com/2001/05/35-200.html
[20] S. C. Lu, “上市公司金像電子大火 延燒10小時,” Liberty Times Net, ed. Taiwan, 2002.
Available: http://old.ltn.com.tw/2002/new/sep/2/today-c6.htm
[21] M. Y. Lei, “Assessment on Fire Protection Performance Criteria of Curtain Wall,” Ministry of the Interior Research Project Report, Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of the Interior, R.O.C., 2003.
[22] M. Y. Lei, “Research on the Application of Innovatory Techniques for Opening Fire Protective in Compartmen(t 1/2)Preliminary study on enhancing fire protection performance of curtain wall and glazed opening,” Ministry of the Interior Research Project Report, Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of the Interior, R.O.C., 2004.
[23] M. Y. Lei, “Study of Fire Spread and Stoppage Techniques for Curtain Wall Fires,” Ministry of the Interior Research Project Report, Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of the Interior, R.O.C., 2002.
[24] T. N. Cheng and B. L. Kuo, “Evaluation of Fire Resistance Performance and Design Methods of Curtain Walls,” Ministry of the Interior Research Project Report, Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of the Interior, R.O.C., 1999.
[25] L. Hartley, “Extreme Fire Behaviour — Introduction,” [Online]. Available: http://tathrafirebrigade.org.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=54&catid=12&Itemid=135
[26] H. S. Chen and D. J. Chou, Design of Fire Safety of Buildings. Hsu-Yin Publish, 2001.
[27] B. R. Cuzzillo and P. J. Pagni, “Thermal Breakage of Double-pane Glazing by Fire,” Fire Prot. Eng., vol. 9, pp. 1-11, 1998.
[28] T. Shields, G. Silcock, and S. J. Hassani, “The Behavior of Single Glazing in an Enclosure Fire,” vol. 7, pp. 145-163, 1998.
[29] H. Y. Chen, Fire Hazard. Taiwan: Tingmao Publish, 2003.
[30] W. Y. Lin, “Study on Flames Issuing from Exterior Openings of Building,” Unpublished master dissertation, Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei City, Taiwan, 2000.
[31] Y. Wang, Q. Wang, G. Shao, H. Chen, Y. Su, J. Sun, L. He, and K. J. Liew, “Fracture Behavior of a Four-point Fixed Glass Curtain Wall under Fire Conditions,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 67, pp. 24-34, 2014.
[32] Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Su, J. Sun, L. He, and K. M. Liew, “Fracture Behavior of Framing Coated Glass Curtain Walls under Fire conditions,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 75, pp. 45-58, 2015.
[33] Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Su, J. Sun, L. He, and K. M. Liew, “Experimental Study on Fire Response of Double Glazed Panels in Curtain Walls,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 92, pp. 53-63, 2017.
[34] J. Nam, M. G. Jeong, H. S. Ryou, J. T. Kim, J. S. Nam, D. J. Kim, and S. W. Cho, “Validation of a Numerical Model for Curtain Walls with MVHS during Free Burning,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 94, pp. 45-53, 2017.
[35] J. De La Rosa and Y. Lu, “Fire Performance of Glass Curtain Wall,” Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2017.
[36] J. B. Hsio, C. N. Liu, and M. J. Ho, “Fire Resistance Test Method and Case Studies for Building Fire Preventions,” Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of the Interior, R.O.C., 2002.
[37] J. Shriver, “Perimeter Fire Containment-The Basics,” Thermafiber, Inc., 2009.
[38] D. O'Connor, “Building Façade or Fire Safety Façade?,” CTBUH, pp. 30-39, 2008.
[39] T. Tanaka, “Introduction to Fire Safety of Buildings,” (in Japanese), The Building Center of Japan , pp. 168-171, 1993.
[40] C. Y. Lin, “Study of Curtain Wall Fire Resistance by Full-Scale Experiment (I),” National Science Council, Taiwan, 2003.
[41] C. Y. Lin, “Study of Curtain Wall Fire Resistance by Full-Scale Experiments (III),” National Science Council, Taiwan, 2005.
[42] C. Y. Lin, “Study of Curtain Wall Fire Resistance by Full-Scale Experiment (II),” National Science Council, Taiwan, 2004.
[43] J. C. Shriver, “Perimeter Fire Containment in Multi-Story Buildings,” Thermafiber, Inc., 2009.
[44] L. Hu, Z. Qiu, K. Lu, and F. Tang, “Window Ejected Flame Width and Depth Evolution along Facade from Under-ventilated Enclosure Fires,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 76, pp. 44-53, 2015.
[45] “Aluminum-Framed Curtain Wall :Perimeter Fire Containment System ASTM E2307,” Technical Bulletin CW-01, Thermalfiber inc., 2016.
[46] “Steel Stud - Perimeter Fire Containment System,” Technical Bulletin SS-04, Thermalfiber inc., 2016.
[47] A. R. Hutchinson, A. Pagliuca, and R. Woolman, “Sealing and Resealing of Joints in Buildings,” Constr build mater., vol. 9,pp. 379-387, 1995.
[48] “Perimeter Curtain Wall Fire Protection,” International Firestop Council, 2004.
[49] C. F. Lee, “The Study on Smoke Control Leakage of Curtain-Wall Through-Penetration Firestop,” Unpublished master dissertation, Department of Architecture, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, 2011.
[50] B. P. Jelle, “Traditional, State-of-the-art and Future Thermal Building Insulation Materials and Solutions–Properties, Requirements and Possibilities,” Energ Buildings., vol. 43, pp. 2549-2563, 2011.


[51] D. M. S. Al-Homoud, “Performance Characteristics and Practical Applications of Common Building Thermal Insulation Materials,” Build Enviorn., vol. 40, pp. 353-366, 2005.
[52] T. Nauclér and P.-A. Enkvist, “Pathways to a Low-carbon Economy: Version 2 of the Global Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve,” McKinsey & company, vol. 192, 2009.
[53] T. P. Ku, “A Study on the Improvement of Exterior Wall Construction by the Double Walls System,” Unpublished master dissertation, Department of Architecture, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taipei, 2004.
[54] Y. C. Tsai, “A Study for EPS Application into the Curtain Wall,” Unpublished master dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei City, Taiwan, 2017.
[55] L. Peng, Z. Ni, and X. Huang, “Review on the Fire Safety of Exterior Wall Claddings in High-rise Buildings in China,” Procedia Eng., vol. 62, pp. 663-670, 2013.
[56] K. Rawlinson, H. Sherwood, and V. Dodd, “Grenfell Tower Final Death Toll: Police Say 71 Lives Lost as Result of Fire,” The Guardian, ed. UK, 2017.
[57] S. T. McKenna, N. Jones, G. Peck, K. Dickens, W. Pawelec, S. Oradei, S. Harris, A. A. Stec, and T. R. Hull, “Fire Behaviour of Modern Facade Materials - Understanding the Grenfell Tower fire,” J Hazard Mater, vol. 368, pp. 115-123, 2019.
[58] Y. Hou, X. Cheng, S. Liu, C. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Experimental Study on upward Flame Spread of Exterior Wall Thermal Insulation Materials,” Energy procedia., vol. 66, pp. 161-164, 2015.
[59] W. Taylor, “Evaluation of Thermal Barriers for Foamed Plastic Insulation,” Fire Technol., vol. 19, pp. 125-135, 1983.


[60] I. Oleszkiewicz, “Fire Exposure to Exterior Walls and Flame Spread on Combustible Cladding,” FIRE TECHNOL., vol. 26, pp. 357-375, 1990.
[61] Y. J. Chuang, C. H. Tang, P.-H. Chen, Y. H. Chuang, and C.-Y. Lin, “Indicative Fire Tests to Investigate Heat Insulation Scenario of Wired Glasses Sprayed with Intumescent Coatings,” J Coat Technol Res., vol. 9, pp. 143-150, 2012.
[62] E. G. Brehob and A. K. Kulkarni, “Experimental Measurements of Upward Flame Spread on a Vertical Wall with External Radiation,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 31, pp. 181-200, 1998.
[63] K. C. Tsai, “Width Effect on Upward Flame Spread,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 44, pp. 962-967, 2009.
[64] L. Zhou, A. Chen, L. Gao, and Z. Pei, “Effectiveness of Vertical Barriers in Preventing Lateral Flame Spread over Exposed EPS Insulation Wall,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 91, pp. 155-164, 2017.
[65] Q. X. Meng, G. Q. Zhu, M. m. Yu, and Z. h. Liang, “Experimental Study on Upward Flame Spread Characteristics of External Thermal Insulation Material under the Influence of Porosity,” Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, vol. 12, pp. 365-373, 2018.
[66] W. An, R. Pan, Q. Meng, and H. Zhu, “Experimental Study on Downward Flame Spread Characteristics under the Influence of Parallel Curtain Wall,” Appl Therm Eng, vol. 128, pp. 297-305, 2018.
[67] M. M. Yu, G. Q. Zhu, and Q. X. Meng, “Experimental Study and Analysis of XPS Vertical Countercurrent Fire Spread,” Procedia Eng., vol. 211, pp. 945-953, 2018.
[68] Y. Zhou, R. Bu, J. Gong, W. Yan, and C. Fan, “Experimental Investigation on Downward Flame Spread over Rigid Polyurethane and Extruded Polystyrene Foams,” Exp Therm Fluid Sci, vol. 92, pp. 346-352, 2018.
[69] X. Huang, J. Zhao, G. Tang, Y. Zhang, and J. Sun, “Effects of Altitude and Inclination on the Flame Structure over the Insulation Material PS Based on Heat and Mass Transfer,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 90, pp. 1046-1055, 2015.
[70] B. Zhou, H. Yoshioka, T. Noguchi, and T. Ando, “Experimental Study of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS) Masonery Façade Reaction-to-fire Performance,” Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 8, pp. 83-92, 2018.
[71] “Fire-resistance Tests for Non-loadbearing Elements - Using Intermediate-scale,” multi-story test apparatus, CNS 16071, Chinese National Stanards (CNS), 2018.
[72] “Method of Test for Heat Release Rate for Building Materials - Part 1 : Cone Calorimeter Method.,” CNS 14705, Chinese National Stanards (CNS), 2013.
[73] “Reaction to Fire Tests for Facades - Intermediate Scale Test,” CNS 15213-1, Chinese National Stanards (CNS), 2013.
[74] M. T. Yang, “Full-Scale Evaluation on Fire Resistance of Curtain Wall Systems,” Unpublished master dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan, 2018.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2019-07-22起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2019-07-22起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw