||Analysis on Fire Resistance of Curtain Wall System and Flame Spread of Building Exterior Wall
||Department of Mechanical Engineering
Curtain wall systems
perimeter joint protection
fire resistance performance
exterior thermal insulation wall system
The fire resistance performance of curtain wall systems played a crucial role in preventing loss in property and human life, especially in high rise fires. When a fire occurs, it will spread to the room above in two ways: propagating on the exterior wall surface of the wall, and penetrating through a joint between a vertical wall and the floor slab. Perimeter joint protection serves a fire barrier to preventing fire from spreading. In exterior thermal insulation system, combustible thermal insulation material lead to potential fire risk. In this study, a full scale fire resistance performance test of a curtain wall system and a reduced scale flame spread test of thermal insulation material were conducted. A commercial stick system aluminum curtain wall system was tested. The specimen’s fire resistance was determined to be 58 minutes and 40 seconds based on the T-rating, and 1 hour and 40 minutes based on the F-rating. After 1 hour and 40 minutes, the gas flow rate exceeded the limit, so the test result could not be analyzed. Compared with previous test, the design of the test specimen was modified and a gas barrier was added. The fire resistance of the test specimen was found to be enhanced. In tests with thermal insulation materials, 5 polystyrene products and 4 polyurethane were tested with cone calorimeter first. The results showed that only PU_1 met the requirements for inflammability grade 1. Other products could not met the requirements for inflammability grade 3. 2 polystyrene and 2 polyurethane products were tested in the flame spread test. The results showed that, melted polystyrene products can lead to the downward flame spread and to intensification of a fire. In the tests with PU_1, no flame spread phenomenon was observed. In the test with PU3, after being ignited, PU3 burned steadily, spread upward and posed a danger to the upper floor.
List of Tables III
List of Figures IV
1. Introduction 1
1.1. High Rise Building in Fires 1
1.1.1. Curtain Wall System in Fires 1
1.1.2. Exterior Thermal Insulation Systems in Fires 6
1.2. Standard Fire Test Method in Taiwan 11
1.3. Motivation and Objectives of Study 12
2. Experimental Apparatus and Method 13
2.1. Curtain Wall System Test Method 13
2.1.1. Test Apparatus and Burners 13
2.1.2. Specimen Test 14
2.2. Flame Spread on Thermal Insulation Material 18
2.2.1. Cone Calorimeter Test 18
2.2.2. Flame Spread Experimental Apparatus 19
2.2.3. Flame spread test analysis method 20
3. Results and Discussions 22
3.1. Curtain Wall System Test 22
3.1.1. Specimen test 22
3.1.2. Comparison with Previous Tests 25
3.2. Flame Spread on Thermal Insulation Material 28
3.2.1. Cone Calorimeter Test 28
3.2.2. Flame Spread Test 30
4. Conclusions 36
5. Reference 37
6. Tables and Figures 45
7. Appendix 94
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