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系統識別號 U0026-1807201911025800
論文名稱(中文) 界面活性劑Tween 80於水蒸餾萃取茶樹精油之最佳化研究
論文名稱(英文) Study on Optimization for Enhancing Extraction by Hydrodistillation of Tea Tree Oil with Surfactant Tween 80
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 化學工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Chemical Engineering
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 周容萱
研究生(英文) Jung-Hsuan Chou
學號 N36064149
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 96頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳炳宏
口試委員-侯聖澍
口試委員-林睿哲
口試委員-李澤民
口試委員-李岱洲
中文關鍵字 茶樹精油  反應曲面法  水蒸餾  Tween 80  抑菌 
英文關鍵字 Tea Tree Oil  Extraction  Tween 80  Design of Experiments (DOE)  Antibacterial  Antioxidant 
學科別分類
中文摘要 茶樹精油含有約100種萜烯及其相關的醇類組成,近年來因為良好的生物活性,被大眾廣泛運用於生活中,像是牙膏、化妝品、香水…等,都可以看到茶樹精油的身影。其中萜品烯-4-醇 (Terpinen-4-ol) 為最主要影響生物活性的成分,包括抗菌性,抗黴菌、抗病毒,以及抗癌性等。廣泛的運用使茶樹精油逐漸供不應求,價格攀升,因此茶樹精油的研究開發計畫中表示2018-2022年目標為使茶樹精油定價與生產供應達平衡。故本實驗目的為增加茶樹精油產率,探討精油生物活性,並以國際標準ISO 4730中規範其中9種含量較高之成分作為分析成分。
本實驗以食品級界面活性劑Tween 80水蒸餾萃取茶樹精油,使用實驗設計反應曲面法最佳化蒸餾條件,並以水溶液界面活性劑濃度、萃取時間及原料物與水的比例(固液比)為考慮因子,得最佳配方為水溶液界面活性劑濃度2700 ppm、萃取時間140分鐘及液固比為11.6。以GC-FID檢測其組成是否符合國際標準,並與氣候做比較,9月份降水日數增加,當月萃取的精油1,8-Cineole比例約占19.4%,超過ISO 4730所規定的10%。精油溶解度測試中,茶樹精油於5 wt% Tween 80水溶液時有良好穩定性,比起商用精油有更好的溶解效果。茶樹精油抗氧化活性EC50為75.07 mg/g,其成份中γ-Terpinene也有良好抗氧化活性;於精油抗菌活性中,以抑菌圈實驗定性,茶樹精油對革蘭氏陽性菌金黃色葡萄球菌以及革蘭氏陰性菌大腸桿菌皆有抗菌效果,其成份中Terpinen-4-ol也有良好抗菌效果,並以肉湯稀釋法定量抗菌效果,測量最小抑菌濃度 (MIC) 及最小殺菌濃度 (MBC),結果顯示茶樹精油對金黃色葡萄球菌抗菌效果優於大腸桿菌。
英文摘要 In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to evaluate the effects of process parameters of hydrodistillation for extraction of tea tree oil (TTO) in presence of a nonionic surfactant - Tween 80. These process parameters include the surfactant concentration, the extraction time and the liquid/solid ratio on the extraction yield of TTO were investigated. Results showed that the data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model, in which the extraction time had a significant effect on the extraction yield of TTO. It was predicted that the optimum extraction condition is 2700 ppm as the concentration of Tween 80 in hydro-distill, 140 min for extraction time and liquid/solid ratio at 11.6. Under these optimal conditions, the extraction yield of tea tee oil was 5.48%.
The kinetics model of oil extraction comprised two stages of washing and diffusion. The surfactant added could increase both kinetic parameters. The components of tea tree oil were analyzed with gas chromatography (GC), while HPLC was employed to analyze the quantity of Tween 80 present in the extracted TTO. The oil obtained under the optimal extraction condition underwent further tests for the stability of its microemulsion formulation with Tween 80, as well as its antibacterial and antioxidant properties. The maximum amount of tea tree oil that could be solubilized within the micelles increased with an increasing concentration of Tween 80. The microemulsion made with TTO in 5 wt% Tween 80 was stable for over 30 days. Antioxidant activity of tea tree oil was determined using the DPPH assay. The EC50 value was 75.07 mg/g. The -terpinene, one main ingredient of TTO, exhibited good antioxidant activity, while its EC50 was 45.85 mg/g. The antibacterial activity of tea tree oil was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with the agar disk-diffusion method and the broth dilution. Tea tree oil displayed the superior antimicrobial properties evaluated by the disk-diffusion assay. The MBC values for tea tree oil against E. coli and S. aureus were 8.77 and 6.08 mg/mL, respectively.
論文目次 摘要 I
Extended Abstract II
致謝 XVI
目錄 XVII
表目錄 XXI
圖目錄 XXIII
第一章、 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第二章、 文獻回顧 3
2.1 天然植物精油 3
2.1.1 精油的產生 5
2.1.2 茶樹精油概論 5
2.1.3 茶樹精油規範 6
2.1.4 茶樹精油的保存 8
2.1.5 茶樹精油生物活性 8
2.2 精油萃取方法 12
2.2.1 蒸餾法 (Distillation) 12
2.2.2 冷壓法 (Cold pressed) / 壓榨法 (Expression) 12
2.2.3 溶劑萃取法 (Solvent Extraction) 13
2.2.4 超臨界萃取法 (Supercritical Fluid Extraction, SFE) 13
2.2.5 微波萃取法 13
2.3 實驗設計 15
2.3.1 實驗設計簡史 15
2.3.2 實驗設計的基本原理 16
2.3.3 反應曲面法 (Response Surface Methodology, RSM) 17
2.3.4 最陡上升法 18
2.3.5 反應曲面設計選擇 19
2.4 界面活性劑 21
2.4.1 界面活性劑種類 21
2.4.2 HLB (Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance, HLB) 22
2.4.3 乳化 (Emulsification) 23
2.4.4 微乳液 (Microemulsion) 23
2.4.5 界面活性劑篩選 23
2.5 精油抗菌活性 24
2.5.1 抗菌試驗 24
2.5.1.1 擴散法 (Diffusion methods) 24
2.5.1.2 稀釋法 (Dilution methods) 26
2.5.2 試驗菌種介紹 27
2.5.3 抗氧化性試驗 28
第三章、 研究方法 30
3.1 實驗架構 30
3.2 實驗藥品 31
3.3 實驗儀器 33
3.4 實驗方法 34
3.4.1 澳洲茶樹葉前處理 34
3.4.2 澳洲茶樹精油主成分分析及檢量線製作 34
3.4.3 精油內含界面活性劑檢測 35
3.4.4 實驗設計 (Design of Experiments, DOE) 36
3.4.5 界面活性劑於精油之研究 40
3.4.5.1 精油溶解度 40
3.4.5.2 乳液粒徑分布及穩定度 40
3.4.6 精油生物活性 41
3.4.6.1 抗氧化性 41
3.4.6.2 抗菌試驗 41
第四章、 結果與討論 43
4.1 前實驗 43
4.1.1 茶樹葉大小對產率影響 43
4.1.2 液固比對產率影響 43
4.1.3 界面活性劑濃度對產率影響 44
4.1.4時間對產率影響 45
4.2 實驗設計 46
4.2.1 實驗表格及反應值 46
4.2.2 迴歸分析 48
4.2.3 最佳條件預測 50
4.2.4 模型驗證 52
4.3 最佳化條件產率比較 53
4.4 萃取時間與萃取量的關係 54
4.5 茶樹精油成分分析 58
4.5.1 精油組成與季節之比較 58
4.5.2 精油組成與萃取時間之比較 60
4.5.3 精油內含界面活性劑檢測 61
4.6 界面活性劑於精油之研究 64
4.6.1 精油溶解度 64
4.6.2 乳液粒徑分布 65
4.6.3 乳液穩定度 68
4.7 精油生物活性檢測 72
4.7.1 抗氧化性 72
4.7.2 抗菌實驗 73
4.7.2.1 抑菌圈 73
4.7.2.2 最小抑菌濃度 (MIC) 及最小殺菌濃度 (MBC) 74
第五章、 結論與建議 76
5.1 結論 76
5.2 建議 78
參考文獻 79
附錄 86
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