||An Integration of Antecedents, Mediators, Moderators and Outcomes of Brand Equity and Behavior Intention
||Department of Business Administration
2012年 Gambetti, Graffigna, and Biraghi等學者，指出過去與品牌權益相關之研究不足之處有三點：(1)重視認知面多於經驗面(2)多數探討著重消費者個體之行為，未將社會或關係面 一併納入考量(3)通常是片面式的部份探討品牌權益。過去尚未有研究能夠將影響品牌之前因、中介、干擾及變果變數進行充分之整合。本研究特別整合三前因變數、三類中介變數、三類干擾變數及三個結果變數來探討影響品牌權益之效果，各類變數間之相關也將探討。本研究藉由學者及品牌行銷實務經理人來加以確認品牌權益的重要變數及其關聯性(study1)，並對過去的相關研究之後設分析(study2)來提出一整合型架構對品牌權益做一通盤的研究，以填補以上之研究空缺。最後再用調查方法來實證(study3)，確認該整合型架構是合乎現代品牌權益之影響力。研究結果證實經驗面之變數在建立品牌權益及提升消費者行為意圖上亦具有重要影響力，而品牌個性、品牌信任及品牌忠誠度對於品牌權益都具有正面顯著的直接影響或間接影響。再者，關係及心理干擾變數對於品牌權益與品牌偏好、行為意圖及口碑都有顯著干擾效果。
One of the most critical marketing topics which has been discussed extensively by both academicians and practitioners over the past decades is brand equity. A lot of previous studies have focused on this research issue, particularly on the determinants of brand equity. However, the results are still inconclusive and a comprehensive relationship framework is yet to be developed.
Previous studies regarding brand-related constructs have been criticized as (1) too much focus on mental activation rather than experiential perception of brand equity, (2) too much focus on individual dimension of consumer behavior that neglects the influences of social, cultural, and relational context of brand equity on consumer behavior, and (3) too much focus on many fragmented views of brand equity, which may be significant with partial representation, but neglect to develop a comprehensive framework of brand equity. This study aims to fill these research gaps by integrating previous literature and developing a comprehensive framework to identify the antecedents, mediators, moderators, and consequences of brand equity. Twenty-eight research hypotheses were developed and validated in this study.
In order to verify the appropriateness of the proposed research framework and research design based on literature review, this study first adopted a series of in-depth interviews to collect data from experts. The research framework was modified based on the comments of the experts. A meta-analysis and a survery were conducted to empirically test the viability of the the framework. The results indicated that three major dimensions of variables, including cognitive factors, experiential factors, and marketing factors have significant influences on brand equity. Brand personality, brand trust, and brand loyalty have served as three of the mediators that can mediate the influences of cognitive, experiential, and marketing factors on brand equity. Furthermore, brand equity can be a significant indicator of brand preference, behavioral intention, and word of mouth toward the brand. Two major aspects of moderators, including relational moderators and psychological moderators can amplify the influence of brand equity on brand preference, behavioral intention, and word of mouth.
Since most of the previous studies do not integrate into a more comprehensive framework of brand equity, the results of this study have provided as an important reference for academicians to conduct further empirical validations on the research of brand equity. The results are also very useful for professionals to identify their marketing and promotion strategies to enhance brand equity and the profitability of the firm.
CHINESE ABSTRACT III
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VIII
LIST OF FIGURES X
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivations 1
1.2 Research Objectives 4
1.3 Research Contribution 5
1.4 Research Project and Scope of the Study 5
1.5 Research Procedure 6
1.6 The Structure of this Study 8
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Theoretical Background 9
2.2 Brand Equity Model 15
2.3 Brand Trust Model 18
2.4 Brand Loyalty Model 19
2.5 Brand Personality Model 19
2.6 Antecedents of Brand Equity 20
2.6.1 The Cognitive Antecedents of Brand Equity 22
2.6.2 The Experiential Antecedents of Brand Equity 24
2.6.3 The Marketing Effort Antecedents of Brand Equity 26
2.7 The Mediating Factors of Brand Equity 27
2.8 The Consequences of Brand Equity 30
2.9 The Moderating Factors for The Influence of Brand Equity On Its Outcomes 31
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 35
3.1 Introduction 35
3.2 Study One: Qualitative Study-In depth Interview 36
3.2.1 Methodology 36
3.2.2 Sampling Plan and Data Collection Method 38
3.2.3 Content Analysis 39
3.2.4 Reliability of Data Coding 40
3.3 Study Two - Meta-analysis 41
3.3.1 Meta-analytic Procedure 41
3.3.2 Sample Plan 42
3.3.3 Data Analysis Techniques 45
3.4 Study Three-Survey 46
3.4.1 Research Hypotheses 46
3.4.2 Research Hypotheses 46
3.4.3 Research Instruments 47
22.214.171.124 Experiential Factors 48
126.96.36.199 Cognitive Factors 48
188.8.131.52 Marketing Factors 49
184.108.40.206 Brand Equity 50
220.127.116.11 Mediating Factors: Brand Personality, Brand Trust and Brand Loyalty 50
18.104.22.168 Moderating Factors 51
3.4.4 Questionnaire Design 53
3.4.5 Brand Selection and Sampling Plan 54
22.214.171.124 Sampling plan and Data Collection Procedure 55
3.4.6 Data Analysis Techniques 57
126.96.36.199 Descriptive Statistic Analysis 57
188.8.131.52 Reliability and Validity Measures 57
184.108.40.206 Common Method Variance Issue 58
220.127.116.11 Hypotheses Testing Techniques 58
CHAPTER FOUR QUALITATIVE STUDY AND HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT 61
4.1 Qualitative Data Analysis 61
4.2 Content Analysis 61
4.3 Reliability and Validity 65
4.4 Hypotheses Development 68
4.4.1 Inter-relationships among Cognitive, Experiential and Marketing Antecedents 68
4.4.2 The Influences of Experiential Antecedents on Brand Related Constructs 71
4.4.3 The Influences of Cognitive Antecedents on Brand-Related Constructs 74
4.4.4 The Influences of Marketing Antecedents on Brand-Related Constructs 78
4.4.5 Interrelationship between Brand Trust, Brand personality, Brand Loyalty and Brand Equity 82
4.4.6 The Influences of Brand Equity on Outcome Variables 85
4.4.7 The Inter-relationships among Behavioral Intention, Brand Preference and WOM 89
4.4.8 The Moderating Effects for the Influences of Brand Equity on its Outcomes 90
4.5 The Conceptual Framework 97
CHAPTER FIVE EMPIRICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIOUS 98
5.1 Meta-analysis Results 98
5.1.1 Descriptive Analysis of Collected Data 98
5.1.2 Inclusion Criteria and Coding 98
5.1.3 Effect size and Mediation Effect 99
5.1.4 Results and Discussions 100
18.104.22.168 Inter-relationships among Cognitive, Experiential, and Marketing Factors 100
22.214.171.124 Antecedents on Brand Personality, Trust, Loyalty, and Equity 102
126.96.36.199 Mediators and Consequences of Brand Equity 105
188.8.131.52 Consequences of brand equity 106
Table 5-7 Meta-Analysis for the Consequences of Brand Equity 107
5. 1.5 Discussion 107
184.108.40.206 Antecedents of Brand Equity 108
220.127.116.11 Mediators of Brand Equity 108
5.2 Questionnaire Survey Results 109
5.2.1 Characteristics of Respondents 109
5.2.2 Measurement Results for Research Variables 110
5.3 Factor Analysis and Reliability Test 115
5.3.1 Experential Factors 116
5.3.2 Cognitive Factors 117
5.3.3 Marketing Factors 120
5.3.4 The meidators of Brand Personality, Brand Loyalty, and Brand Trust 122
5.3.5 Brand Equity 122
5.3.6 Psychological Moderators 126
5.3.7 Relational Moderators 127
5.3.8 Behavioral Itention, Brand Preference, WOM 127
5.4 The Test of Common Method Variance 129
5.5 Hypotheses Testing 130
5.5.1 Eavluation of the Measurement Model 130
5.5.2 Evaluation of the Structural Model 133
18.104.22.168 The Influence of Market Factors 133
22.214.171.124 The Influences of Experiential Factors 135
126.96.36.199 The Influence of Cognitive Factors 136
188.8.131.52 Interrelationship between Brand Personality, Brand Trust, Brand Loyalty and Brand Equity 137
184.108.40.206 Consequences of brand equity. 138
5.5.3 The Moderating Effects 140
220.127.116.11 Evauating the Moderating Effects of Relational Moderators 140
18.104.22.168 Evaluating the Moderating Effects of Psychological Moderators 144
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 149
6.1. Conclusions 149
6.2. Academic Implications 153
6.3. Managerial Implications 154
6.4. Limitations and Future Research Directions 157
Survey Questionnaire 177
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