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系統識別號 U0026-1801202002044100
論文名稱(中文) 氮摻雜提升氧化銦鎵薄膜電晶體穩定性及效能之研究
論文名稱(英文) Investigation of In-situ Nitrogen Doping for Improving Stability and Performance of InGaO TFTs
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 微電子工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Microelectronics
學年度 108
學期 1
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 程彥齊
研究生(英文) Yen-Chi Cheng
學號 Q18041098
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 116頁
口試委員 指導教授-張守進
召集委員-張鼎張
口試委員-邱裕中
口試委員-楊素華
口試委員-郭政煌
口試委員-藍文厚
口試委員-陳志方
口試委員-許進恭
口試委員-張勝博
中文關鍵字 氧化銦鎵  薄膜電晶體  光電晶體體  氮摻雜  氧空缺  雙疊層主動層  離子化  紫外光  感測器  穩定性  可靠度 
英文關鍵字 InGaO  TFT  indium-gallium oxide  thin-film transistor  phototransistor  nitrogen  doping  oxygen vacancy  DSCL  double-stacked channel layer  ionization  UV  detector  stability  reliability 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著科技的發展,薄膜電晶體(TFT)已廣泛使用在各種應用中,特別是平面顯示器。因此不論是發展技術相當成熟的主動矩陣式液晶顯示器(AMLCD),或是近年來非常熱門的主動矩陣式有機發光二極體顯示器(AMOLED),都利用薄膜電晶體陣列進行像素的開關,以減少畫面延遲的現象。由於透明導電氧化物(TCO)載子移動率高、能隙大、製程溫度低,且大面積成膜均勻度良好,適合作為薄膜電晶體的主動層材料。此氧化物不僅能提高薄膜電晶體的驅動電流,其對於可見光的透光性良好,亦能增加顯示器的開口率。透明導電氧化物能夠取代過去以矽為主的材料,以得到畫質更清晰且畫面切換速度更快的影像。透明導電氧化物獨特的材料特性,也開啟了光電晶體、可饒式電子元件和氣體感測器等多項新領域的研究。
然而,透明導電氧化物中的氧空缺(Oxygen vacancy),容易受偏壓和光照影響,使薄膜電晶體在操作的過程中逐漸退化。其中氧氣的吸附與脫附,以及氧空缺離子化,都大大降低元件的可靠度。故本研究以氧化銦鎵(InGaO)作為薄膜電晶體的主動層材料,在濺鍍氧化銦鎵薄膜的過程中,進行微量氮摻雜。經由氮摻雜填補過量氧空缺,並與周圍的金屬原子形成更強的鍵結,以提升薄膜穩定度,進而改善偏壓與光照所導致的元件劣化,提高元件在長時間操作下的穩定性。
為了製做高效能的薄膜電晶體,我們將氮摻雜技術運用在雙疊層主動層(DSCL)的元件結構中。利用氮摻雜調變氧化物能隙,將具有不同能隙及氧空缺含量的氧化銦鎵薄膜進行堆疊作為元件主動層,製做高載子移動率(µFE = 25 cm2/Vs)且高開關電流比(ION / IOFF > 108),開關特性優異的薄膜電晶體。
此外,我們也將氮摻雜技術應用在紫外光的偵測上,製做光響應高且不受可見光干擾的紫外光感測器(UV detector)。透過氮摻雜抑制陷阱能態到導帶的電子躍遷,改善可見光導致氧空缺離子化所產生的光電流。同時藉由氮摻雜形成局部能帶尾態,減少等效能隙,增強價帶與導帶間由紫外光照射引起的電子躍遷,得到高紫外光響應(Responsivity = 17.4 A/W)以及高拒斥比(Rejection ratio = 1.0 × 106)的氧化銦鎵紫外光感測器。本研究詳細討論氮摻雜對於氧化銦鎵薄膜電晶體作為開關元件和紫外光感測器的影響,並探討氧化銦鎵薄膜電晶體相關電性與可靠度等問題。
英文摘要 With the development of technology, thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been widely used for various applications, especially for switching devices in flat panel displays (FPDs) including active-matrix liquid-crystal displays (AMLCD) and active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays (AMOLED). TFT arrays are utilized to switch the pixels in FPDs to reduce the image delay. Due to the advantages of high carrier mobility, wide bandgap, low-temperature processability, and good uniformity over a large area, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) have become the mainstream active layer materials for TFTs. TCOs not only can increase the driving current of the TFTs but also exhibit good transmittance to visible light, increasing the aperture ratio. TCOs offer good alternatives to conventional silicon-based materials to achieve higher resolution and frame rate. Also, the unique material characteristics of TCOs have enabled the creation of new research in the areas of phototransistors, flexible electronics, and gas sensors.
However, TCOs are susceptible to excessive oxygen vacancies, which will cause device instability during operation. Particularly, the adsorption and desorption of oxygen and the ionization of oxygen vacancies tend to result in reliability issues under bias and light stress. In this thesis, indium-gallium oxide (InGaO) was used for the active layer material, and a small amount of nitrogen was introduced during the deposition of InGaO thin-films. The in-situ nitrogen doping (N-doping) is able to effectively passivate the excessive oxygen vacancies and form stronger bonds with surrounding metal atoms. This approach can enhance the stability of the InGaO thin-films and thereby improve the device degradation for long-term operation.
To manufacture high-performance TFTs, the in-situ N-doping technique was integrated with the structure of the double-stacked channel layer (DSCL). We exploited N-doping to modulate the bandgap of the InGaO, and then stacked the IGO thin-films of different bandgaps and the amount of oxygen vacancies as the active layer for superior switching characteristics, including high carrier mobility (µFE = 25 cm2/Vs) and on-off current ratio (ION / IOFF > 108).
In addition, the in-situ N-doping technique was applied for fabricating highly responsive and visible-blind UV detectors. Through the suppression of the electron transition from subgap states, the N-doping restrained the photocurrent from the visible light-induced ionization of the oxygen vacancies. Moreover, due to the formation of localized tail states, the effective bandgap of the InGaO decreased, which enhanced the UV-induced band-to-band transition. High-performance IGO phototransistors with high UV responsivity (17.4 A/W) and rejection ratio (1.0 × 106) were therefore attained. In this thesis, the effects of N-doping for switching devices and UV detectors were demonstrated. The relevant electrical characteristics and reliability issues of InGaO TFTs were discussed as well.
論文目次 摘要 II
Abstract V
致謝 VIII
Content X
List of Figures XV
List of Tables 1
Chapter 1 Introduction 2
1-1 Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) 2
1-2 Metal Oxide Thin-Film Transistor 3
1-3 UV Photodetector 4
1-4 Organization of the Dissertation 5
References 8
Chapter 2 Device Properties and Process Equipment 12
2-1 Principle of Device Operation 12
2-1-1 Thin-Film Transistor (TFT) 12
2-1-2 Phototransistor 14
2-2 Device Parameters 14
2-2-1 Field-Effect Mobility (μFE) 14
2-2-2 Threshold Voltage (VTH) 15
2-2-3 On/off Current Ratio (ION/IOFF) 15
2-2-4 Subthreshold Swing (SS) 16
2-2-5 Responsivity 16
2-3 Process Equipment 17
2-3-1 Magnetron Sputtering System 17
2-3-2 Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) 18
2-3-3 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) 19
2-3-4 X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 20
2-3-5 Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) 20
Figure Captions 22
Chapter 3 Effects of Nitrogen Doping on Stability and Hysteresis of poly-InGaO TFTs under Positive Bias Stress 25
3-1 Introduction 25
3-2 Experimental Methods 27
3-2-1 Fabrication Details 27
3-2-2 Measurement and Analysis 28
3-3 Results and Discussion 28
3-4 Summary 33
Figure Captions 34
Table Captions 41
References 42
Chapter 4 Integration of Nitrogen Doping with Bandgap-Engineered Double-Stacked Channel Layers for High-Performance InGaO TFTs 48
4-1 Introduction 48
4-2 Experimental Methods 49
4-2-1 Fabrication Details 49
4-2-2 Measurement and Analysis 50
4-3 Results and Discussion 51
4-4 Summary 55
Figure Captions 56
Table Captions 63
References 64
Chapter 5 Effects of Nitrogen Doping on Light-Induced Ionization of Oxygen Vacancy and Oxygen Desorption in InGaO TFTs 68
5-1 Introduction 68
5-2 Experimental Methods 69
5-2-1 Fabrication Details 69
5-2-2 Measurement and Analysis 70
5-3 Results and Discussion 70
5-4 Summary 75
Figure Captions 76
Table Captions 83
References 84
Chapter 6 Poly-InGaO Thin-Film Transistors Coupled with Nitrogen Doping for High-Performance UV Detectors 88
6-1 Introduction 88
6-2 Experimental Methods 90
6-2-1 Fabrication Details 90
6-2-2 Measurement and Analysis 91
6-3 Results and Discussion 91
6-4 Summary 97
Figure Captions 98
Table Captions 104
References 105
Chapter 7 Conclusion and Future Work 112
7-1 Conclusion 112
7-2 Future Work 114
Publication List 115
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[1] T. Kamiya and H. Hosono, “Material characteristics and applications of transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors,” NPG Asia Mater., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 2010.
[2] W.-S. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Cho, B.-K. Kim, K. T. Park, and O. Kim, “Effect of Wavelength and Intensity of Light on a-InGaZnO TFTs under Negative Bias Illumination Stress,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. Q6–Q9, 2017.
[3] T. Mudgal, N. Walsh, R. G. Manley, and K. D. Hirschman, “Impact of Annealing on Contact Formation and Stability of IGZO TFTs,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. Q3032–Q3034, Jul. 2014.
[4] Y.-C. Cheng, S.-P. Chang, S.-J. Chang, T.-H. Cheng, Y.-L. Tsai, Y.-Z. Chiou, and L. Lu, “Stability Improvement of Nitrogen Doping on IGO TFTs under Positive Gate Bias Stress and Hysteresis Test,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol., vol. 8, no. 7, pp. Q3034–Q3040, 2019.
[5] J. Yang, Y. Han, R. Fu, and Q. Zhang, “Effects of Nitrogen Doping on Performance of Amorphous SnSiO Thin Film Transistor,” J. Disp. Technol., vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1560–1564, 2016.
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