||Graphene Oxide as an Additive in Liquid and Printable Electrolyte for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Applications
||Department of Chemical Engineering
||Elmer Surya Darlim
graphene oxide sponge
electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Graphene oxide (GO) was firstly synthesized from graphite via modified Hummers method. Then it was exfoliated in distilled water and freeze-dried to obtain graphene oxide sponge (GOS). The obtained GOS has spongy, foamy and porous structure compared to sheet-like GO. The GOS was then applied as additive in liquid and quasi-solid electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The GOS-liquid electrolyte was then injected to DSSC devices meanwhile the GOS-quasi-solid electrolyte was printed onto photoelectrode active area by doctor blading. The measurement of DSSC devices were performed under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G). For liquid electrolyte system, devices containing 0.6 wt% GOS showed improved cell performance from 8.84% to 9.22%. While for quasi-solid electrolyte system, devices containing 1.5 wt% GOS showed improved cell performance from 8.12% to 8.78%. The improvement of power conversion efficiency for both kind devices was mainly attributed to higher open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis was carried out and it elucidated that GOS decreased the electron recombination rate leading to increased Voc. The dark current also confirmed the decreased of dark current indicating that GOS suppressed the electron recombination. As the DSSCs containing quasi-solid electrolyte were subjected for 500 h stability test at 60oC under dark, both without and with additive maintained 79% and 84% of its initial efficiency while the DSSC with liquid electrolyte maintained only 42% of its initial efficiency.
EXTENDED ABSTRACT II
TABLE OF CONTENTS XIV
LIST OF FIGURES XVII
LIST OF TABLES XXII
CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivations 1
1.2 Objectives 3
1.3 Outline 6
CHAPTER 2 Literature review and summary 8
2.1 Milestone of photovoltaic productiom 8
2.2 Structure and operational for DSSC 9
2.3 Materials and components for DSSC 16
2.3.1 Substrate 16
2.3.2 Semiconductor photoelectrodes 17
2.3.3 Dye (photosensitizer) 22
2.3.4 Electrolytes 34
2.3.5 Platinum (Pt) counter electrode 41
2.4 Graphene oxide 43
2.4.1 Chemical properties of GO 43
2.4.2 Applications of GO in DSSCs application 45
2.5 Characterizations of DSSC 48
2.5.1 Solar spectrum 48
2.5.2 I-V Characteristics 50
2.5.3 Spectral response of DSSC 53
2.5.4 Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) 55
CHAPTER 3 Experimental 62
3.1 Chemicals and materials 62
3.1.1 Photoelectrode 62
3.1.2 Solvent and cleaner 63
3.1.3 Polymer and electrolyte components 63
3.1.4 Preparation of graphene oxide chemicals 63
3.1.5 Cell assembly components 63
3.1.6 Other supporting chemicals and materials 64
3.2 Devices and instrumentations 64
3.3 Experimental procedures 81
3.3.1 Preparation of graphene oxide sponge (GOS) 82
3.3.2 Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass cleaning procedure 83
3.3.3 Preparation of photoelectrode 84
3.3.4 Preparation of electrolytes 85
3.3.5 Cell assembling 87
3.3.6 Analysis 89
CHAPTER 4 Results and Discussions 92
4.1 Characterizations of GOS 92
4.1.1 Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of GO 92
4.1.2 Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) 93
4.1.3 Raman spectroscopy 94
4.1.4 X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) 95
4.1.5 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 99
4.1.6 Transmission electron microscopy TEM) 101
4.2 GOS as an additive in liquid electrolyte for DSSCs 103
4.3 GOS as an additive in printable electrolyte for DSSCs 113
CHAPTER 5 Conclusions and Recommendations 124
5.1 Conclusions 124
5.2 Recommendations 125
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