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系統識別號 U0026-1712201923262700
論文名稱(中文) 以車道為基礎之高速公路擁擠定價模型
論文名稱(英文) A Lane-based Congestion Pricing Model for Expressway Toll-lane Management
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 交通管理科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
學年度 108
學期 1
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 吳亭葦
研究生(英文) Ting-Wei Wu
學號 R56064120
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 88頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡守任
口試委員-鄭永祥
口試委員-沈宗緯
中文關鍵字 道路定價  電子收費  邊際成本定價法  車道選擇  車道管理 
英文關鍵字 Road pricing  Electronic toll collection  Marginal cost pricing  Lane choice  Toll-managed lanes 
學科別分類
中文摘要 道路收費常被用來改善交通擁擠問題的方法之一,然而由於收費價格受管制且車道使用相對沒有彈性,因此效果相對有限。隨著資通訊技術的快速發展,透過多車道、自由流電子收費系統與全球衛星定位系統即時監控車輛的軌跡,用路人可根據其行程屬性與時間價值,在高速公路進行車道選擇的決策,以符合其旅次需求。臺灣地區高速公路系統自2014年1月起全面實施依照里程計費的ETC系統,該系統不僅使連續車流不至於因收費而被中斷,更可以靈活的實施擁擠定價策略。本研究將高速公路車道劃分為兩種類型,包括:額外收費車道(Premium lane)、一般車道(Regular lane),時間有急迫性的用路人可透過支付更高的費用使用額外收費車道以避免壅塞,在高速公路以車道為基礎的收費政策(lane-based pricing policy)之下,本研究透過個體選擇模式,了解影響用路人選擇不同車道偏好之因素。同時以邊際成本定價法,建構以車道為基礎之高速公路最適擁擠定價模型,進而達到高速公路整體社會福利最大化的目標。從數值分析的結果顯示,影響用路人選擇不同車道之客觀因素中,用路人本身之社會經濟條件,例如:性別、個人可支配所得、家庭成員數、旅次目的為影響用路人對於車道選擇的重要影響因素;而減少旅行時間則是影響用路人進行車道選擇之重要主觀因素。在以邊際成本定價模型探討車道擁擠定價之實證研究結果顯示,當政府實施車道擁擠定價時,此時的高速公路整體社會福利值比在自由車流的情況下(市場機制)福利值高。且當距離越長時,每單位公里之車道收費價格越低,造成此現象之主要原因為本研究假設用路人在完成車道選擇後不可變換車道,故交流道淨流入流量之變化對價格產生影響。
英文摘要 Road pricing is one of the methods for mitigating traffic congestion problems. Traditionally, congestion pricing strategies have been implemented on a segmented basis, where users traveling on regular lanes or high occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are charged by different congestion fees or tolls. Thanks to technical improvements in related ICT technologies, we can monitor the vehicle's trajectory online via a multi-lane free-flow electronic toll collection (ETC) system and GPS system. Thus, when needed, highway users can make lane choice decisions of the highway based on their trip attributes and value of time (VOT). In this study, we divide the highway trunk into two types of lanes, including premium lane, regular lane(s). This study applies discrete choice models to explore the factors influencing the lane-based choice behaviors of a traveler. In addition, this study develops a lane-based pricing strategy by the marginal cost pricing model to maximize the total social welfare. And the result of lane congestion pricing shows that when the government implements lane congestion pricing, the social welfare of the first-best pricing scheme is higher than the no toll scheme. And distance is an important factor affecting the price because the study assumes that the passerby cannot change the lane after completing the lane selection, so the change of the net inflow of the channel has an impact on the price.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 4
1.3 研究範疇 4
1.4 研究方法 5
1.5 研究流程 5
第二章 文獻回顧 8
2.1 影響用路人選擇之主客觀因素 8
2.1.1 個體選擇模式 8
2.1.2 車道管理 11
2.2 擁擠定價 13
2.2.1 擁擠定價起源 14
2.2.2 邊際成本定價法 15
2.2.3 次佳道路定價法 17
2.2.4 擁擠定價之相關文獻 17
2.3 國外實施案例分析 21
2.4 國內現況分析 24
2.5 小結 28
第三章 研究方法 29
3.1 用路人車道選擇行為 29
3.1.1 個體選擇模式理論基礎 29
3.1.2 二元羅吉特模式 31
3.1.3 敘述性偏好 32
3.1.4 問卷設計 34
3.2 車道定價理論模型 35
3.2.1 理論模型假設 35
3.2.2 需求函數 36
3.2.3 成本函數 39
3.2.4 福利求算 40
3.3 車道定價模型推導 40
3.3.1 不收費政策 41
3.3.2 邊際成本定價法 41
第四章 實證研究 44
4.1 用路人車道選擇行為模式分析 44
4.1.1 敘述統計 44
4.1.2 二元羅吉特模式變數設定 50
4.1.3 二元羅吉特模式結果分析 51
4.2 定價模型之實證分析 59
4.2.1 車道擁擠定價之實證研究 60
4.2.2 行駛距離敏感度分析 64
第五章 結論與建議 71
5.1 結論 71
5.2 貢獻 72
5.3 建議 73
參考文獻 75
附錄一 81
附錄二 87

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