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系統識別號 U0026-1711201013081600
論文名稱(中文) 從社會認知與社會交換理論探討資訊人員知識分享
論文名稱(英文) Understanding Knowledge Sharing among IT Professionals Based on Social Cognitive Theory and Social Exchange Theory
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 國際企業研究所碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Institute of International Business
學年度 100
學期 1
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 鄭乃彰
研究生(英文) Nai-Chang Cheng
學號 r6895103
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 104頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡明田
口試委員-李元墩
口試委員-賴明材
口試委員-陳嵩
口試委員-吳文雄
口試委員-蔡惠婷
中文關鍵字 知識分享  社會認知理論  社會交換理論  組織公平 
英文關鍵字 Knowledge Sharing  Social Cognitive Theory  Social Exchange Theory  Outcome Expectancy 
學科別分類
中文摘要 知識分享是組織現代化重要的歷程,成功的知識分享可以讓員工間共享智慧資本,獲取工作上執行的效益,也已成為日益重要的資源。近年來,行為學家廣泛運用社會學與心理學理論來探討知識分享的認知過程,希望提升組織內知識的質與量。
社會認知理論常被廣泛使用於包含影響行為的心理動態和促進行為改變的方法。社會認知理論主要是以環境、個人、行為三者之間的交互作用影響以解釋人的行為。行為是被外在的環境控制,或被內在的認知所影響的一種計畫性行為。社會認知理論是一個普遍用來解釋知識分享行為上的重要理論基礎,本研究假設個人知識分享行為是組織環境與個人認知所共同產生。
社會交換理論強調非物質的交換過程,員工會評估發展組織內社會關係利益與風險,作為知識分享依據。因此若組織氛圍若具高度公平、信任與承諾可提升組織內知識分享意圖。本研究結合社會認知理論與社會交換理論解釋個人認知與組織環境對知識分享行為意圖之影響,將社會交換因素分為組織公平、信任與承諾,個人認知因素則分為自我效能與結果預期,檢視員工知識分享意圖,以理解支持或妨礙個人分享知識意願的決定因素。
實證研究的部分主要是以問卷調查的方式進行,從南科管理局所列台南科學園區企業中,抽取20家代表性企業之樣本資料,以每家30份問卷,協請各企業的人力資源部門進行問卷發放,回收約375份問卷資料,經分析後有效問卷數達271份。透過結構方程模式分析的檢驗本研究獲致下列結果:
一、就個人認知而言,知識分享的自我效能確實是影響個人知識分享行為的主要動機來源,滿足社會認知理論的部分假設,適用於解釋知識分享活動的適切性。就結果預期而言,個人的自尊結果預期會影響其分享行為,而互利結果預期並不會影響,顯示IT專業人士藉由分享滿足自尊的實現,比較不關心知識分享是否會為個人帶來更多利益。
二、就社會交換觀點的組織環境而言,組織公平會影響其信任與承諾,信任並不會直接促成組織知識分享行為,而是藉由組織承諾影響知識分享行為,顯示組織承諾對IT專業人士的重要性。
英文摘要 Knowledge sharing is a critical process in modern organizations, as it can result in shared intellectual capital, an increasingly important resource. In recent years, many behavioral scientists have begun studying the cognitive process of knowledge sharing using approaches from sociology and psychology in order to increase the frequency of such behavior.
Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) includes an examination of the psychological dynamics associated with the promotion of behavioral change, and is a widely accepted model for validating individual behavior. In the SCT model, personal factors, environmental influences, and behavior are all interacting determinants that influence each other bidirectionally. This study is concerned with the role of personal cognitive factors and environmental factors with regard to their influences on a specific individual behavior, namely knowledge sharing.
Social exchange theory emphasizes non-material exchange, and people share their knowledge by weighing the potential benefits and risks of social relationships. The research presented in this study includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explores the effects of organizational environment (organizational justice, trust, commitment) and personal cognition (self-efficacy and outcome expectancy) on KSI.
Empirical research is generally based on the data obtained from questionnaires. We select 20 firms from the semiconductor industry and optoelectronics industry operating at Southern Taiwan Science Park (STSP) as our samples. Thirty questionnaires were distributed to each company’s human resource department by mailing, and a total of 271 usable questionnaires were returned. Using the structural equation modeling, the results showed that:
1. Knowledge sharing self-efficacy and self-esteem expectancy affect individuals’ knowledge sharing intentions. Contrary to common belief, we found that reciprocal relationship expectancy did not affect individuals’ knowledge sharing intentions.
2. Organizational justice and organizational trust are antecedents of organizational commitment, and this trust and commitment then influence the willingness to share knowledge. However, trust demonstrated no direct effect on knowledge sharing intentions.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives 3
1.3 Research Procedure 5
1.4 The Structure of Study 8
Chapter 2. Theoretical Background 9
2.1 Theory Definition 9
2.1.1 Knowledge Sharing 9
2.1.2 Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) 13
2.1.3 Social Exchange Theory (SET) 16
2.1.4 Behavioral Intention and Behavior 22
2.2 Structure Definition and Hypotheses Development 25
2.2.1 Knowledge Sharing Self-Efficacy 25
2.2.2 Outcome Expectancy 27
2.2.3 Organizational Trust 34
2.2.4 Organizational Commitment 35
2.2.5 Organizational Justice 38
Chapter 3. Research Model and Methodology 43
3.1Conceptual Framework 43
3.2Research Hypothesis 44
3.3Construct Definition and Measurement 45
3.4Pilot test and Pre-test 50
3.5Sampling and data collection 57
3.6Data Analysis Methods 57
Chapter 4. Data collection and analysis 60
4.1 IT department and IT professionals 60
4.2 Data collection 61
4.3 Data analysis 65
4.3.1 The measurement model 65
4.3.2 Analyses of Reliability and Validity 66
4.3.3 Structural Equation Modeling 70
4.3.4 Results of Hypothesis Testing 72
4.3.5 Discussion 74
Chapter 5. Conclusions, Implications and Limitations 76
5.1 Conclusions 76
5.2 Theoretical implications 77
5.3 Managerial implications 78
5.4 Limitations and Future research 80
Reference 82
Appendix A: Questionnaire in English 94
Appendix B: Questionnaire in Chinese 98
Appendix C: Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis 104

List of Tables
Table 1. Summary of relevant socio-psychology studies on knowledge sharing 20
Table 2. Operational definitions- Organizational justice 46
Table 3. Operational definitions-Organizational trust 47
Table 4. Operational definitions-Organizational commitment 48
Table 5. Operational definitions-Outcome expectancy and KS self-efficacy 49
Table 6. Operational definitions- KSI 50
Table 7. Results of Pre-test (N=48) 52
Table 8. Profile of companies 62
Table 9. Profile of respondents (N=271) 64
Table 10. Internal Reliability and Convergent Validity Test Results 68
Table 11. Descriptive Statistics and Discriminant Validity 69
Table 12. Overall Fit Indices of the CFA model 71
Table 13. Path Analysis and Hypotheses Test 74

List of Figures
Figure 1. The Flow Chart of this Research 7
Figure 2. Knowledge Conversion Process 11
Figure 3. Interaction Between the Environment, the Individual, and Behavior 14
Figure 4. Relationships between Efficacy beliefs and Outcome expectancy 15
Figure 5. Theory of Planned Behavior 23
Figure 6. Maslow's hierarchy of needs 32
Figure 7. Research model 43
Figure 8. Results of structural model 73
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