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系統識別號 U0026-1708201122353300
論文名稱(中文) 喜歡我記得的:探討知覺獨特性對曝光效果與再認記憶的影響
論文名稱(英文) Liking What I Remember: Examining Perceptual Distinctiveness on Mere Exposure Effect and Recognition Memory
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 認知科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Cognitive Science
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 蔡宜成
研究生(英文) Yi-Cheng Tsai
學號 U76981078
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 75頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊政達
口試委員-鄭仕坤
口試委員-葉怡玉
中文關鍵字 再認記憶  記得/知道程序  獨特性效果  曝光效果 
英文關鍵字 distinctiveness effect  mere exposure effect  recognition memory  remember/know procedure 
學科別分類
中文摘要 獨特的物件常讓人記憶深刻,而參與者有可能對此物件有較高的喜好度。許多研究發現,相對於一般物件,參與者對於知覺獨特性物件有較高的再認記憶命中率以及回想刺激細節與相關的情境訊息的比率。另外,也有研究發現參與者對刺激的記憶表現會對曝光效果造成影響。曝光效果系指,當刺激重複呈現時,可以提升參與者對刺激的偏好。然而,先前的研究者並未有系統地研究知覺獨特性對於曝光效果的影響。本研究探討當刺激為知覺獨特性物件時,參與者是否會有較好的記憶表現,進而產生較強的曝光效果,並藉此釐清錯誤歸因假說與降低不確定性假說對於曝光效果的預測。學習階段時,本研究操弄刺激圖片在顏色上的知覺獨特性,並在測驗階段時,要求參與者對刺激進行偏好判斷,與記得/知道程序的再認記憶測驗。實驗一的結果顯示,當參與者對刺激有精緻化的登錄,且能回憶刺激線索與相關的情境訊息時,相對於一般物件,參與者對於知覺獨特性物件有較高的記憶表現,與較高的比率回想知覺獨特性物件的細節與相關的情境訊息,因此有較高的喜好度。然而,記憶上的獨特性效果可能源自於精緻的登錄,和對於刺激細節與相關情境訊息的提取。實驗二與三分別從登錄歷程和提取歷程來檢視獨特性效果在再認記憶和曝光效果上,
所扮演的角色。結果顯示,當參與者對不同類型刺激的記憶表現相同時,對於不同類型刺激的喜好度則相同。綜合以上的結果,本研究認為,當參與者對刺激有精緻化的登錄,且能回憶刺激細節與相關的情境訊息時,可以提升參與者對物件的記憶表現,從而產生較強的曝光效果。本研究支持降低不確定性假說。
英文摘要 The distinctiveness is often inherently memorized well and participants may like them more. Many studies found that participants have better memory performance and higher ratio to recollect contextual details. In addition, other studies also showed that participants’ memory performance may affect the mere exposure effect. The mere exposure effect means the preference for stimuli can be enhanced by repeated exposure. However, previous study didn’t systematically investigate how perceptual distinctiveness affects mere exposure effect. As a result, this study investigated whether participants have better memory performance when the stimulus is perceptual distinctiveness, and clarified the predictions of the uncertainty reduction hypothesis and the misattribution hypothesis. In the study phase, this study manipulated the color distinctive of stimuli. In the test phase, participants were required to do a preference judgment and a remember/know judgment in the recognition test. In experiment 1, participants have better memory performance and higher ratio to recollect contextual details when they can elaborative encode stimuli and recollect contextual details. Therefore, they prefer distinctive items to normal items. However, the distinctiveness effect may be caused by the elaborate encoding and retrieve more contextual details. Experiment 2 and 3 investigated the roles of encoding and retrieval process on how distinctiveness effect affects recognition memory and the mere exposure effect. The results show that the preference between distinctive and normal items is the same when participants have the same memory performance. These results suggest that participants having better memory performance and higher ratio to recollect contextual details can produce stronger mere exposure effect when they can both elaborative encode stimuli and retrieve contextual details. This study is consistent with the uncertainty reduction hypothesis.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 IV
目錄 V
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
緒論 1
獨特性的定義 1
獨特性效果 2
再認記憶與意識 3
記得/知道程序的再認記憶測量 4
記得/知道反應的分離 5
增加記得反應的變項 5
增加知道反應的變項 6
增加知道並降低記得反應的變項 6
小結 7
獨特性對再認記憶的影響 8
單純曝光效果 11
錯誤歸因假說 13
降低不確定性假說 15
小結 17
知覺獨特性與曝光效果 18
實驗一 20
方法 21
參與者 21
實驗儀器與設備 21
刺激材料 21
實驗設計 22
程序 23
結果 24
再認記憶的測量 24
再認記憶分析 24
記得/知道反應分析 25
偏好判斷 26
曝光效果分析 26
記得/知道反應下的偏好分析 26
實際出現情形與主觀判斷出現情形的偏好分析 27
討論 30
實驗二 33
方法 33
參與者 33
實驗設計、刺激材料與程序 33
結果 34
再認記憶的測量 34
再認記憶分析 34
記得/知道反應分析 35
偏好判斷 35
曝光效果分析 35
記得/知道反應下的偏好分析 36
實際出現情形與主觀判斷出現情形的偏好分析 36
討論 39
實驗三 42
方法 43
參與者 43
實驗設計、刺激材料與程序 43
實驗三A結果 44
再認記憶的測量 44
再認記憶分析 44
記得/知道反應分析 44
偏好判斷 45
記得/知道反應下的偏好分析 45
實驗三B結果 46
偏好選擇機率分析 46
反應時間分析 47
討論 47
綜合討論 49
再認記憶捷思 51
獨特性與降低不確定性 52
結果的推廣與應用 53
研究限制與未來走向 54
實驗情境 54
刺激材料類型 55
概念獨特性與曝光效果 55
獨特性效果與記憶歷程 56
參考文獻 58
附錄 64


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