進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-1708201115323000
論文名稱(中文) 心靈領導,組織變革不確定性,領導者與部屬的交換關係及變革承諾之關係探討: 以召喚/意義及歸屬感為中介變數
論文名稱(英文) An Empirical Study of the Relationship between Spiritual Leadership, Organisational Change Uncertainty, Leader-Member Exchange (LMX), and Commitment to Change: The Mediating Effects of Meaning/Calling and Membership
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 國際經營管理研究所碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Institute of International Management (IIMBA--Master)(on the job class)
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 陳靖綸
研究生(英文) Ching-Lun Chen
學號 ra797116
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 86頁
口試委員 指導教授-余明助
口試委員-陳正忠
口試委員-林豪傑
中文關鍵字 心靈領導  組織變革不確定性  變革承諾  領導者與部屬的交換關係 
英文關鍵字 Spiritual Leadership  Organisational Change Uncertainty  Commitment to Change  Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究的目的是在於探討台灣中小企業員工受到面臨組織變革之影響,並研究如何降低員工抗拒組織變革。心靈領導、組織變革不確定性、變革承諾、領導者與屬員的交換關係將在此研究討論。
所得到的研究結果如下:
1.心靈領導與召喚/意義、歸屬感以及變革承諾呈正向的關係。
2.組織變革不確定性及組織變革承諾與心靈領導呈現反向的關係。
3.心靈領導與領導者與部屬的交換關係呈正向關係。
4.召喚/意義及歸屬感在心靈領導級組織變革承諾,產生正向的中介關係。
英文摘要 The purpose of this study is to explore the impact on employees of SMEs in Taiwan when they face organisational change. Associating with leader and subordinate could be eliminated possible resistance of organisational change. The relationships between spiritual leadership, organisational change uncertainty, leader-member exchange (LMX), and commitment to change would be evaluated.
The data collection was conducted 200 questionnaires to SMEs employees. There were in return of 173 sets of valid questionnaires. The data were measured by factor analysis, reliability test, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine the relationships among these constructs of the structural model.
The findings of this study are listed as follows:
1. There is a positive relationship between spiritual leadership and calling/meaning and membership, and commitment to change.
2. Spiritual leadership is negatively related to organisational change uncertainty, as well as has a negative relationship to commitment to change.
3. Spiritual leadership is positively related to LMX.
4. Highly involving of meaning/calling and membership will be positively mediated the relationship between spiritual leadership and commitment to change.
論文目次 Table of Contents
ABSTRACT......I
摘要......II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS......III
TABLE OF CONTENTS......IV
LIST OF TABLES......VIII
LIST OF FIGURES......IX
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION......1
1.1 Research Motivation.......1
1.2 Research Objective.......2
1.3 Research Process and Structure.......2
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW......4
2.1 Organisational Change.......4
2.1.1 Introduction.......4
2.1.2 Organisational Change Models.......5
2.2 Organisational Change Uncertainty.......8
2.2.1 Concepts of Organisational Change Uncertainty.......8
2.2.2 Causes of Organisational Change Uncertainty.......9
2.3 Spiritual Leadership.......10
2.3.1 Vision......14
2.3.2 Hope/Faith......14
2.3.3 Altruistic Love......14
2.3.4 Meaning/Calling......14
2.3.5 Membership......15
2.4 Leader-Member Exchange.......15
2.4.1 Overview.......15
2.5 Change Commitment.......18
2.5.1 Organisational Commitment.......18
2.5.2 Commitment to Change.......19
2.6 The Relationship between Variables.......19
2.6.1 The Relationship between Spiritual Leadership and Meaning/Calling and Membership......19
2.6.2 The Relationship between Meaning/Calling and Membership and Commitment to Change.......21
2.6.3 The Relationship between Spiritual Leadership and Organisational Change Uncertainty.......21
2.6.4 The Relationship between Spiritual Leadership and Leader-Member Exchange (LMX).......23
2.6.5 The Relationship between Organisational Change Uncertainty and Commitment to Change.......24
2.6.6 The Relationship between Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Commitment to Change.......24
2.6.7 The Mediating Effect of Meaning/Calling and Membership......25
2.6.8 The Mediating Effect of Organisational Change Uncertainty.......26
2.6.9 The Mediating Effect of Leader-Member Exchange.......27
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY......29
3.1 Research Design.......29
3.1.1 Conceptual Model.......29
3.1.2 Hypotheses Test.......30
3.2 Construct Measurement.......31
3.2.1 Organisational Change Uncertainty.......31
3.2.2 Spiritual Leadership.......34
3.2.3 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX).......36
3.2.4 Commitment to Change.......37
3.3 Sampling Plan.......38
3.4 Data Analysis.......40
3.4.1 Construct Reliability, Construct and Convergent Validity of the Measurement Variables.......40
3.4.2 Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Analysis.......41
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULT......42
4.1 Descriptive Analysis.......42
4.1.1 Sample and Data Collection.......42
4.1.2 Characteristics of Respondents.......43
4.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis.......45
4.2.1 CFA for Spiritual Leadership.......45
4.2.2 CFA for Meaning/Calling.......47
4.2.3 CFA for Membership.......48
4.2.4 CFA for Organisational Change Uncertainty.......49
4.2.5 CFA for Leader-Member Exchange.......50
4.2.6 CFA for Commitment to Change.......52
4.2.7 Construct Validity.......53
4.3 Structural Equation Modelling.......54
4.3.1 Path Analysis.......54
4.3.2 Model Validity Assessment.......58
4.3.3 Mediating Effects of Variables.......63
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS ......65
5.1 Research Conclusions and Discussions.......65
5.2 Research Contributions.......68
5.2.1 Theoretical Contribution.......69
5.2.2 Practical Contribution.......69
5.3 Limitations and Future Research Directions.......70
REFERENCES......71
APPENDICES......77
Appendix 1: Questionnaire (English version).......77
Appendix 2: Questionnaire (traditional Chinese version).......83

List of Tables
Table 2-1 Organisational Change Model......7
Table 2-2 Statements on Sense of Meaning and Purpose......20
Table 3-1 Organisational Change Uncertainty Questionnaire Items......32
Table 3-2 Spiritual Leadership Questionnaire Items......35
Table 3-3 Leader-Member Exchange Questionnaire Items......37
Table 3-4 Commitment to Change Questionnaire Items......37
Table 4-1 Characteristics of Respondents......44
Table 4-2 CFA Result for Spiritual Leadership......45
Table 4-3 CFA Result for Meaning/Calling......47
Table 4-4 CFA Result for Membership......48
Table 4-5 CFA Result for Organisational Change Uncertainty......49
Table 4-6 CFA Result for Leader-Member Exchange......51
Table 4-7 CFA Result for Commitment to Change......52
Table 4-8 Construct Validity of the Model Variables......53
Table 4-9 SEM Results for Model Path Analysis......56
Table 4-10 Characteristic of Different Fit Indices Demonstrating Goodness-of-Fit Across Different Model Situations......62
Table 5-1 Summary of Research Hypotheses......65

List of Figures
Figure 1-1. The flow of research......3
Figure 2-1. Causal model of spiritual leadership......12
Figure 2-2. Qualities of spiritual leadership......13
Figure 2-3. Model of spiritual leadership......13
Figure 3-1. The conceptual model......29
Figure 4-1. Structural equation model for conceptual model and model fitindices......61
參考文獻 Albrecht, L., & Adelman, B. (1987). Communicating social support. CA: Sage.
Allen, N., & Meyer, J. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1-18.
Ansari, M., Hung, D., & Aafaqi, R. (2007). Leader-member exchange and attitudinal outcomes: role of procedural justice climate. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 28(8), 690-709.
Armenakis, A., & Bedeian, A. (1999). Organizational change: A review of theory and research in the 1990s. Journal of Management, 25(3), 293-315.
Ashford, S. (1988). Individual strategies for coping with stress during organizational transitions. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 24(1), 19-36.
Avey, J., Wernsing, T., & Luthans, F. (2008). Can positive employees help positive organizational change? Impact of psychological capital and emotions on relevant attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44(1), 48-70.
Avolio, B. (2007). Promoting more integrative strategies for leadership theory-building. American Psychologist, 62(1), 25-33.
Avolio, B., Walumbwa, F., & Weber, T. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-449.
Bastien, D. (1987). Common patterns of behavior and communication in corporate mergers and acquisitions. Human Resource Management, 26(1), 17-33.
Bennis, G., Spreitzer, M., & Cummings, G. (2001). The future of leadership : Today's top leadership thinkers speak to tomorrow's leaders. San Francisco, EUA: Jossey-Bass.
Berger, R., & Bradac, J. (1982). Language and social knowledge: Uncertainty in interpersonal relations. London: Edward Arnold.
Bordia, P., Hobman, E., Jones, E., Gallois, C., & Callan, V. (2004). Uncertainty during organizational change: Types, consequences, and management strategies. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18(4), p.507-532.
Bordia, P., Hunt, E., Paulsen, N., Tourish, D., & DiFonzo, N. (2004). Uncertainty during organizational change: Is it all about control? European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 13(3), p.345-365.
Brower, H., Schoorman, D., & Tan, H. (2000). A model of relational leadership: The integration of trust and leader-member exchange Leadership Quarterly, 11(2), 227-250.
Buono, J., & Bowditch, J. (1989). The human side of mergers and acquisitions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Cogliser, C., & Schriesheim, A. (2000). Exploring work unit context and leader–member exchange: a multi-level perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(5), 487-511.
Dam, K., Oreg, S., & Schyns, B. (2008). Daily work contexts and resistance to organisational change: The role of leader–member exchange, development climate, and change process characteristics. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57(2), 313-334.
Dansereau, F., Graen, G., & Haga, W. (1975). A vertical dyad approach to leadership within formal organizations. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13, 46-78.
DeChurch, A., Hiller, J., Murase, T., Doty, D., & Salas, E. (2010). Leadership across levels: Levels of leaders and their levels of impact. The leadership quarterly, 21(6), 1069-1085.
Dienesch, M., & Liden, C. (1986). Leader-Member Exchange Model of Leadership: A Critique and Further Development. The Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 618-634.
DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (1998). A tale of two corporations: Managing uncertainty during organizational change. Human Resource Management, 37(3-4), 295-303.
Dirks, T., & Ferrin, L. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 611-628.
Eby, T., Freeman, M., Rush, C., & Lance, E. (1999). Motivational bases of affective organizational commitment: A partial test of an integrated theoretical model. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 463-483.
Elias, S. (2009). Employee commitment in times of change: Assessing the importance of attitudes toward organizational change. Journal of Management, 35(1), 37-55.
Ellis, B. (1992). The effects of uncertainty and source credibility on attitudes about organizational change. Management Communication Quarterly, 6(1), 34-57.
Fedor, D., Caldwell, S., & Herold, D. (2006). The effects of organizational changes on employee commitment: a multilevel investigation. Personnel Psychology, 59, 1-29.
Fleischman, R. (1994). The healing spirit: Explorations in religion and psychotherapy. Cleveland: OH: Bonne Chance Press.
Ford, C., & Gioia, D. (2000). Factors influencing creativity in the domain of managerial decision making. Journal of Management, 26(4), 705-732.
Fry, L. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 693-727.
Fry, L. (2005). Spiritual leadership theory as a paradigm for organization transformation and development [Electronic Version]. Dr. Fry Online, 1-45. Retrieved 2009/11/01, from http://www.tarleton.edu/Faculty/fry/SLTOrgDevel.pdf
Fry , L., Hannah, S., Noel, M., & Walumbwa, F. (2011). Impact of spiritual leadership on unit performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 1-13.
Fry, L., Vitucci, S., & Cedillo, M. (2005). Spiritual leadership and army transformation: Theory, measurement, and establishing a baseline. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 835-862.
Gerstner, R., & Day, V. (1997). Meta-Analytic review of leader-member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues. . Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 872-844.
Giacalone, R., & Jurkiewicz, C. (2003). Right from wrong: The influence of spirituality on perceptions of unethical business activities Journal of Business Ethics, 46(1), 85-97.
Gilley, A., Gilley, J., & McMillan, H. (2009). Organizational change: Motivation, communication, and leadership effectiveness. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 21(4), 75-94.
Graen, G., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 Years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6.
Greenhalgh, L., & Rosenblatt, Z. (1984). Job insecurity: Toward conceptual clarity. The Academy of Management Review, 9(3), 438-448.
Hair, F., Black, C., Babin, J., Anderson, E., & Tatham, L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6 ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Herscovitch, L., & Meyer, P. (2002). Commitment to organizational change: Extension of a three-component model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 474-487.
Hooper, D., & Martin, R. (2008). Beyond personal leader-member exchange (LMX) quality: The effects of perceived LMX variability on employee reactions. The Leadership Quarterly, 19.
Howell, M., & Hall-Merenda, K. (1999). The ties that bind: the impact of leader-member exchange, transformational and transactional leadership, and distance on predicting follower performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 680-694.
Hui, C., & Lee, C. (2000). Moderating effects of organization-based self-esteem on organizational uncertainty: Employee response relationships. Journal of Management, 26, 215-232.
Iverson, R. (1996). Employee acceptance of organizational change:the role of organizational commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(1), 122-149.
Jackson, S., Schuler, R., & Vredenburgh, D. (1987). Managing stress in turbulent times. In A. Riley & S. Zaccaro (Eds.), Occupational stress and organizational effectiveness (pp. 141-166). New York: Praeger.
Janssen, O., & Yperen, W. (2004). Employees' goal orientations, the quality of leader-member exchange and the outcomes of job performance and job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 47(2), 68-384.
Johnson, J., Bernhagen, M., Miller, V., & Allen, M. (1996). The role of communication in managing reductions in work force. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 24(3), 139 - 164.
Kang, D., & Stewart, J. (2007). Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership and HRD development of units of theory and laws of interaction. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 28(6), 531-551.
Karakas, F. (2010). Spirituality and performance in organizations: A literature review. Journal of Business Ethics, 94, 89-106.
Katz, D., & Kahn, L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley.
Kiffen-Petersen, A., & Cordery, L. (2003). Trust, individualism and job characteristics as predictors of employee preference for teamwork. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(1), 93-116.
Kotter, P. (1996). Leading change: Harvard Business School Press.
Kramer, M. (1999). Motivation to reduce uncertainty: A reconceptualization of uncertainty reduction theory. Management Communication Quarterly, 13(2), 305-316.
Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science. London: Harper Row.
Liden, C., Wayne, J., & Stilwell, D. (1993). A longitudinal study on the early development of leader-member exchanges. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 662-674.
Markow, F., & Klenke, K. (2005). The effects of personal meaning and calling on organizational commitment: An empirical ivestagation of spiritual leadership. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 13(1), 8-27.
Martin, R., Thomas, G., Charles, K., Epitropaki, O., & McNamara, R. (2005). The role of leader-member exchanges in mediating the relationship between locus of control and work reactions. . Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78(141-147).
Miller, K., & Monge, P. (1985). Social information employee anxiety about organizational change. Human Communication Research, 11(3), 365-386.
Miller, V., Johnson, J., & Grau, J. (1994). Antecedents to willingness to participate in a planned organizational change. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 22(1), 59 - 80.
Milliken, F. (1987). Three types of perceived uncertainty about the environment: State, effect, and response uncertainty. The Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 133-143.
Mishra, K., Spreitzer, G., & Mishra, A. (1998). Preserving employee morale during downsizing. Sloan Management Review, 39(2), 83-95.
Nelson, A., & Cooper, C. (1995). Uncertainty amidst change: The impact of privatization on employee job satisfaction and well-being. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 68(1), 57-71.
Pandey, A., & Singh, K. (2010). Wholesome leadership development process: Case study of a business organization. In S. S. Nandram & M. E. Borden (Eds.), Spirituality and Business (pp. 205-217): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Pearce, J. (1981). Bringing some clarity to role ambiguity research. The Academy of Management Review, 6(4), 665-674.
Pollard, T. (2001). Changes in mental well-being, blood pressure and total cholesterol levels during workplace reorganization: the impact of uncertainty. Work & Stress, 15(1), 14-28.
Schriesheim, C., Neider, L., Scandura, T., & Tepper, B. (1992). Development and preliminary validation of a new scale (LMX-6) to measure Leader-Member Exchange in organizations. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 135-147.
Schweiger, D., & Denisi, A. (1991). Communication with employees following a merger: A longitudinal field experiment. The Academy of Management Journal, 34, 110-135.
Small and Medium Enterprise Administration. (2010). Major trends in the development of SMEs. Retrieved 2011/05/19. from http://book.moeasmea.gov.tw/book/doc_detail.jsp?pub_SerialNo=2010A01017&click=2010A01017#.
Sparrowe, R., & Liden, R. (1997). Process and structure in leader-member exchange. The Academy of Management Review, 22(2), 522-552.
Strebel, P. (1996). Why do employees resist change? Harvard Business Review(86-92).
Teboul, B. (1994). Facing and coping with uncertainty during organizational encounter. Management Communication Quarterly, 8(2), 190-224.
Terry, D., Callan, V., & Sartori, G. (1996). Employee adjustment to an organizational merger: stress, coping and intergroup differences. Stress Medicine, 12(2), 105-122.
Terry, D., & Jimmieson, N. (1999). Work control and employee well-being: A decade review. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 14, 95-148.
Tseng, H.-C., & Kang, L.-M. (2009). Regulatory focus, transformational leadership, uncertainty towards organizational change, and job satisfaction: In a Taiwan's cultural setting. Asia Pacific Management Review, 14(2), 215-235.
Wanberg, C., & Banas, J. (2000). Predictors and outcomes of openness to changes in a reorganizing workplace. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(1), 132-142.
Whelan-Berry, K., Gordon, J., & Hinings, C. (2003). Strengthening organizational change processes recommendations and implications from a multilevel analysis. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 39(2), 186-207.
Yu, M.-C. (2009). Employee's perception of organizational change: The mediating effects of stress management strategies. Public Personnel Management, 38(1), 17-31.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2016-08-30起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2016-08-30起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw