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系統識別號 U0026-1707201412113400
論文名稱(中文) 台灣西北部前陸盆地演進模式
論文名稱(英文) The Kinematic Model of the Foreland Basin Development in Northwestern Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 張瑜峻
研究生(英文) Yu-Chun Chang
電子信箱 c44971148@gmail.com
學號 L46014021
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 107頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊耿明
共同指導教授-吳榮章
口試委員-鄧屬予
口試委員-林殿順
中文關鍵字 前陸盆地  構造下沉曲線  盆地撓曲模擬  不均質板塊  台灣西北部 
英文關鍵字 foreland basin  subsidence curve  flexural modeling  inhomogeneous plate  northwestern Taiwan 
學科別分類
中文摘要 上新世時期呂宋島弧向西北方斜向碰撞台灣開始造山運動,而造山帶荷重使其前緣由被動式大陸邊緣發育成前陸盆地。前人研究對於前陸盆地確切形成年代至今仍有爭議,而前陸盆地詳細的演化模式也有待探討。本研究區域位於台灣西北部陸、海域地區,基盤由北而南橫跨觀音高區及早期張裂盆地中心;陸域涵蓋麓山帶以及沿海平原,海域則位於台灣海峽中線以東。本研究利用台灣西北部地區震測剖面、井下地質與超微化石資料描述地層岩相變化趨勢,建立構造地層剖面及年代地層,繪製解壓密後的區域等厚圖及構造下沉曲線,並進行盆地的撓曲模擬。本研究欲重建台灣西北部的前陸盆地的構造下沉歷史及演化模式,同時探討研究區域內下覆基盤剛性值的側向差異對前陸盆地演化的影響。
根據構造地層、構造下沉曲線及解壓密後的等厚圖,本研究所建立的構造演化歷史為:1)於5.6–4.4 Ma,全研究區域有少量的構造下沉量及構造下沉速率,盆地為典型的張裂盆地形貌;2)於4.4–3 Ma時,此時期研究區域北側已經形成前陸盆地。陸域地區構造下沉量及構造下沉速率較前期為大且快,而大部份海域地區有少許構造抬升量及構造抬升速率,位於基盤高區的地區則仍持續構造下沉;3)於3–2.1 Ma時,陸域及海域的構造下沉量及構造下沉速率皆開始增加,而研究區域北側的構造下沉量及速率大於南側的構造下沉量及速率,此時期堆積較為深水相的頁岩;4)2.1–1.6 Ma時,陸域地區的構造下沉量及構造下沉速率快速增加,海域地區的構造下沉量與構造下沉速率則較前期稍有增加,而研究區域南側的構造下沉量及速率大於北側的構造下沉量及速率;5)在1.6 Ma之後,構造下沉速率減緩,逐漸靠近的造山帶使得沉積物大量的傳輸到盆地內,堆積巨厚地層並逐漸填滿盆地,沉積的岩相從砂頁互層逐漸變成陸相的礫岩。
盆地撓曲模擬的結果顯示前陸盆地的寬度自形成以來逐漸的加寬。4.4–3 Ma及3–2.1 Ma時,前陸盆地的撓曲深度可以藉由上覆地表的分佈荷重解釋,然而到了2.1–1.6 Ma時,不論增加多少分佈的地形載重及深埋荷重或調整岩石圈的強度,模擬所得到的盆地深度皆無法吻合當時期盆地的實際深度。
根據上述結果,本研究認為在4.4–3 Ma時,陸域下沉且海域抬升為前陸盆地開始發育的徵兆,此時期盆地北側已經形成前陸盆地典型形貌,然而盆地南側仍保留了前一期張裂盆地的形貌。之後,3–2.1 Ma及2.1–1.6 Ma兩時期的構造下沉趨勢代表台灣島斜向碰撞造山遽烈,山脈快速生長且持續往南拓展。而1.6 Ma之後的構造下沉趨勢則代表造山帶碰撞趨緩,山脈高度逐漸達到穩定狀態。解壓密後的等厚圖及撓曲模擬的結果顯示,前陸盆地系統中的前凸起逐漸西移且走向逐漸平行造山帶。此外,在前陸盆地形成初期,研究區域南側及北側發生相異的構造下沉趨勢,代表下覆基盤剛性質在南北走向上的變化。東西走向上,研究區域下覆岩石圈的有效彈性厚度隨著時間逐漸增大,但整體改變不大。本研究認為基底板塊的不均質對於前陸盆地發育初期的影響較明顯,而後,造山帶高度的變化,仍為主控前陸盆地發育重要的因素。
英文摘要 The foreland basin in northwestern Taiwan developed on the pre-existing extensional basin. However, not only the age of the foreland basin initiation still remains in debate but also the process and evolution for the basin formation have not established yet. This study attempts to construct detailed evolutionary model and realize the effects of inherited tectonic unit on the later development of the foreland basin by using the subsidence curves, isopach maps and the flexural modeling. The aforementioned results, suggest that the foreland basin was formed during 4.4–3 Ma. After that, rapid subsidence rate manifests the intense oblique collision causing the orogenic belt growing during 3–1.6 Ma and decreased tectonic subsidence rate might correspond to the diminishing orogenic activity after 1.6 Ma. The influence of the inhomogeneous plate takes an important role in the initial foreland basin development. Until the orogen was close to the study area, the height of the orogen became the key factor to the foreland basin development
論文目次 目次
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 IV
誌謝 VII
目次 VIII
圖目錄 XII
表目錄 XIV
第一章:前言 1
1–1 簡介 1
1–2 台灣前陸盆地架構 5
1–3 研究目的 12
第二章:區域地質 13
2–1 地體構造演化 13
2–2 岩性地層描述 15
2–2–1 桂竹林層 15
a. 關刀山砂岩段 15
b. 十六份頁岩段 16
c. 魚藤坪砂岩段 16
2–2–2 錦水頁岩 16
2–2–3 卓蘭層 16
2–2–4 頭嵙山層 17
2–3 生物地層與岩性地層對比 17
第三章:研究方法 19
3–1 井下資料分析 19
3–1–1 自然電位 19
3–1–2 伽馬射線 19
3–1–3 電阻 20
3–2 震測解釋 20
3–3 構造下沉曲線 20
3–3–1 解壓密 21
3–3–2 反剝法 23
a. 沉積物荷重 23
b. 沉積物密度 24
c. 全球海平面變化 24
d. 構造下沉量 25
3–4 盆地撓曲摸擬 28
第四章:研究成果 36
4–1 構造地層剖面 36
4–1–1 A剖面 38
4–1–2 B剖面 40
4–1–3 C剖面 42
4–2 野外露頭資料及古環境描述 44
4–2–1 桂竹林層關刀山砂岩段 44
4–2–2 桂竹林層魚藤坪砂岩段 44
4–2–3 錦水頁岩 44
4–2–4 卓蘭層 45
4–2–5 頭嵙山層香山段 45
4–2–6 頭嵙山層火炎山段 45
4–2–7 古環境解釋 45
4–3 震測解釋 48
4–3–1 震測剖面解釋 48
4–3–2 各時期解壓密後等厚圖 53
4–4 構造下沉曲線及構造下沉歷史 58
4–5 盆地撓曲模擬 62
第五章:討論 64
5–1 觀音基盤高區對前陸盆地演化的影響 64
5–2 斜向碰撞造山對前陸盆地形貌的影響 68
5–3 基盤剛性強度的側向變化 69
5–4 盆地實際深度與模擬深度比較 69
5–5 構造下沉速率與造山帶發育的關係 70
5–6 各時期前凸起位置及走向討論 70
5–7 前陸盆地演化模型 73
第六章:結論 76
第七章:參考文獻 78
附錄 86

圖目錄
圖一.台灣及鄰近區域地體構造圖 3
圖二.研究區域細部地質圖 4
圖三.前陸盆地發育示意圖 7
圖四.本研究所分析的構造地層剖面分佈 8
圖五.西北-東南向構造地層剖面 (連井線A’) 9
圖六.西北-東南向構造地層剖面 (連井線B’) 10
圖七.西北-東南向構造地層剖面 (連井線C’) 11
圖八.台灣西北部地區岩性地層與生物地層對比圖 18
圖九.解壓密及反剝法示意圖 26
圖十.構造下沉量詳細計算示意圖 26
圖十一.連井線投影圖與數值高程剖面位置 32
圖十二.演算法示意圖 33
圖十三.利用迭代法校訂分佈載重對下覆岩石圈撓曲程度圖 34
圖十四.研究區域細部地質圖及連井線分佈圖 37
圖十五.東西走向構造地層剖面 (連井線A) 39
圖十六.內陸地區東北-西南走向構造地層剖面 (連井線B) 41
圖十七.外海地區東北-西南走向構造地層剖面 (連井線C) 43
圖十八.新竹地區地層綜合柱狀圖 47
圖十九.本研究所使用的震測剖面測線分佈位置 49
圖二十.陸域至海域的震測剖面 50
圖二十一.內陸地區東北–西南走向的震測剖面 51
圖二十二.外海地區東北–西南走向的震測剖面 52
圖二十三.台灣西北部NN11–NN12時期地層等厚圖 54
圖二十四.台灣西北部NN13–NN15時期地層等厚圖 55
圖二十五.台灣西北部NN16時期地層等厚圖 56
圖二十六.台灣西北部NN17–NN19早期時期地層等厚圖 57
圖二十七.研究區域近遠端構造下沉曲線對比圖 61
圖二十八.盆地撓曲模擬圖 63
圖二十九.盆地演化歷史圖 (東西走向) 65
圖二十十.麓山帶地區盆地演化歷史圖 (東北–西南走向) 66
圖三十一.外海地區盆地演化歷史圖 (東北–西南走向) 67
圖三十二.相異基盤剛性質所產生的盆地形貌比較圖 68
圖三十三.各時期前凸起位置及走向 72
圖三十四.盆地演化模型模擬圖 75

表目錄
表一.單一岩性常數參考數值 27
表二.下沉曲線公式參數說明 27
表三.盆地撓曲模擬參數說明 35

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