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系統識別號 U0026-1706201511062000
論文名稱(中文) 集體主義與創新:以年齡及任務相互依存為調節變數
論文名稱(英文) Collectivism and Creativity: Moderating Effects of Age and Task Interdependence
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 國際企業研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of International Business
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 李其倪
研究生(英文) Kinny Lipita Ramli
學號 R66025021
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 85頁
口試委員 指導教授-史習安
口試委員-簡俊成
口試委員-許竹君
中文關鍵字 集體主義  資訊交流  合作  創新  年齡  任務相互依存 
英文關鍵字 Collectivism  Information Exchange  Cooperation  Creativity  Age  Task Interdependence 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在這快速變動且競爭的商業環境下,多數的企業認為,如能使創新成為自身的核心競爭力,將能維持且帶給企業更多的效益。因此,員工的創新受到越來越多的關注。過去的學術文章並未提到集體主義是否對創新產生影響。透過本研究,我們可以更進一步的了解這兩個變數的關係,以及影響集體主義的因素如:年齡和任務相互依存。
本研究一共採用223有效問卷為樣本,受訪者是目前或曾經有過團隊合作經驗的人。本研究中發現,資訊交流與合作能夠正向調節集體主義和創新之間的關係。另外,也發現年齡會調節集體主義與合作之間的關係,但年齡卻無法調節集體主義與資訊交流的關係。此外,任務相互依存對集體主義沒有顯著調節的影響。
這些發現為學術領域帶來小小貢獻。了解這些變數之間的關係讓企業經理人更知悉如何讓員工不斷創新,維持競爭優勢。
英文摘要 Creativity has been highlighted as a core competence for contemporary organizations to maintain or enhance effectiveness in rapidly changing environments. Thus, employees’ creativity has received more and more attention in organizations. The academic literature in the field of collectivism remains ambiguous in regards to whether or not collectivism is beneficial or detrimental to creativity. Through a closer examination we can probe deeper into factors which influence collectivism, such as age and task interdependence.
Data from 223 respondents who currently or have had experience working in a group indicated that information exchange and cooperation mediate the relationship between collectivism and creativity. Results also indicated age moderated the effects of collectivism on cooperation but not information exchange. Moreover, task interdependence has no significant moderation effect on collectivism.
These findings provide more insight into how creativity take place in collectivism and also provide benefits to the academic field. Through understanding the relationship between these factors could benefit organizations to the importance of creativity for sustaining competitive advantage.
論文目次 CONTENTS
ABSTRACT I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS III
CONTENTS V
LIST OF FIGURES IX
LIST OF TABLES X
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background. 1
1.2 Research Objectives. 3
1.3 Research Procedure. 4
1.4 Research Structure. 5
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2. Definition and relationship of Constructs. 6
2.1 Collectivism. 6
2.2 Information Exchange. 7
2.3 The relationship between Collectivism and Information Exchange. 8
2.4 Creativity. 9
2.5 The relationship between Information Exchange and Creativity. 11
2.6 Information Exchange as a mediator in the relationship between Collectivism and Creativity. 12
2.7 Cooperation. 13
2.8 The relationship between Collectivism and Cooperation. 14
2.9 The relationship between Cooperation and Creativity. 15
2.10 Cooperation as a mediator in the relationship between Collectivism and Creativity. 16
2.11 Age. 17
2.12 Age as a moderator in the relationship between Collectivism and Information Exchange. 18
2.13 Age as a moderator in the relationship between Collectivism and Cooperation. 20
2.14 Task Interdependence. 21
2.15 Task Interdependence as a moderator in the relationship between Collectivism and Information Exchange 23
2.16 Task Interdependence as a moderator in the relationship between Collectivism and Cooperation. 25
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 27
3.1 Research Framework. 27
3.2 Hypothesis Testing. 28
3.3 Construct Measurement. 28
3.3.1 Collectivism. 28
3.3.2 Information Exchange. 29
3.3.3 Cooperation. 30
3.3.4 Creativity. 30
3.3.5 Task Interdependence. 31
3.3.6 Control Variables. 31
3.4 Questionnaire Design. 32
3.5 Sampling Plan. 32
3.6 Data Analysis. 33
3.6.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis. 33
3.6.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). 33
3.6.3 Hierarchical Multiple Regression. 34
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 35
4.1 Descriptive Analysis. 35
4.1.1 Sample and Data Collection. 35
4.1.2 Characteristics of Respondents. 35
4.1.3 Non Response Bias Test. 36
4.1.4 Common Method Variance. 37
4.2 Reliability Test. 38
4.2.1 Collectivism. 38
4.2.2 Information Exchange. 39
4.2.3 Cooperation. 40
4.2.4 Creativity. 41
4.2.5 Task Interdependence. 42
4.2.6 Resource Availability. 42
4.3 Construct Validity. 43
4.3.1 Convergent Validity. 43
4.3.2 Discriminant Validity. 45
4.4 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). 46
4.5 Pearson Correlations Coefficient. 46
4.6 Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis. 49
4.6.1 The Positive Relationship between Collectivism and Information Exchange. 49
4.6.2 The Positive Relationship between Collectivism and Cooperation. 49
4.6.3 The Positive Relationship between Information Exchange and Creativity. 51
4.6.4 The Positive Relationship between Cooperation and Creativity. 51
4.6.5 Information Exchange as Mediator between Collectivism and Creativity. 53
4.6.6 Cooperation as Mediator between Collectivism and Creativity. 53
4.6.7 Age as Moderator between Collectivism and Information Exchange. 55
4.6.8 Task Interdependence as Moderator between Collectivism and Information Exchange. 55
4.6.9 Age as Moderator between Collectivism and Cooperation. 57
4.6.10 Task Interdependence as Moderator between Collectivism and Cooperation. 57
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 59
5.1 Research Conclusions and Discussions. 59
5.1.1 Collectivism, Information Exchange and Creativity. 59
5.1.2 Collectivism, Cooperation and Creativity. 60
5.1.3 Age as moderator. 60
5.1.4 Task Interdependence as moderator. 61
5.2 Research Contributions. 62
5.3 Limitations and Future Research Directions. 63
REFERENCES 65
APPENDIXES 75

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 1 Research procedure 4
Figure 3 1 Research framework 27



LIST OF TABLES
Table 3 1 Summary of Hypotheses 28
Table 3 2 Measurement for Collectivistic Orientation - Beliefs 29
Table 3 3 Measurement for Collectivistic Orientation - Values 29
Table 3 4 Measurement for Collectivistic Orientation - Norms 29
Table 3 5 Measurement for Information Exchange 30
Table 3 6 Measurement for Cooperation 30
Table 3 7 Measurement for Creativity 31
Table 3 8 Measurement for Task Interdependence 31
Table 3 9 Measurement for Resource Availability 32
Table 4 1 Characteristics of Targeted Respondents (N=223) 36
Table 4 2 T-test for Non Response Bias 37
Table 4 3 Results of Reliability Test on Collectivism 39
Table 4 4 Results of Reliability Test on Information Exchange 40
Table 4 5 Results of Reliability Test on Cooperation 41
Table 4 6 Results of Reliability Test on Creativity 41
Table 4 7 Results of Reliability Test on Task Interdependence 42
Table 4 8 Results of Reliability Test on Resource Availability 43
Table 4 9 Results of Convergent Validity 44
Table 4 10 Results of Discriminant Validity 45
Table 4 11 Model Fit Indicators for CFA on Each Construct 46
Table 4 12 Pearson Correlations for all Variables 48
Table 4 13 Results of Hierarchical Regression for Relationship between Collectivism, Information Exchange and Cooperation 50
Table 4-14 Results of Hierarchical Regression for Relationship between Information Exchange, Cooperation and Creativity 52
Table 4-15 Results of Hierarchical Regression for Relationship between Information Exchange, Cooperation and Creativity 54
Table 4-16 Results of Hierarchical Regression for Moderating Effect of Age and Task Interdependence between Collectivism and Information Exchange 56
Table 4 17 Results of Hierarchical Regression for Moderating Effect of Age and Task Interdependence between Collectivism and Cooperation 58
Table 5 1 Summary of Hypotheses Results 62
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