||Collectivism and Creativity: Moderating Effects of Age and Task Interdependence
||Institute of International Business
||Kinny Lipita Ramli
Creativity has been highlighted as a core competence for contemporary organizations to maintain or enhance effectiveness in rapidly changing environments. Thus, employees’ creativity has received more and more attention in organizations. The academic literature in the field of collectivism remains ambiguous in regards to whether or not collectivism is beneficial or detrimental to creativity. Through a closer examination we can probe deeper into factors which influence collectivism, such as age and task interdependence.
Data from 223 respondents who currently or have had experience working in a group indicated that information exchange and cooperation mediate the relationship between collectivism and creativity. Results also indicated age moderated the effects of collectivism on cooperation but not information exchange. Moreover, task interdependence has no significant moderation effect on collectivism.
These findings provide more insight into how creativity take place in collectivism and also provide benefits to the academic field. Through understanding the relationship between these factors could benefit organizations to the importance of creativity for sustaining competitive advantage.
LIST OF FIGURES IX
LIST OF TABLES X
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background. 1
1.2 Research Objectives. 3
1.3 Research Procedure. 4
1.4 Research Structure. 5
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2. Definition and relationship of Constructs. 6
2.1 Collectivism. 6
2.2 Information Exchange. 7
2.3 The relationship between Collectivism and Information Exchange. 8
2.4 Creativity. 9
2.5 The relationship between Information Exchange and Creativity. 11
2.6 Information Exchange as a mediator in the relationship between Collectivism and Creativity. 12
2.7 Cooperation. 13
2.8 The relationship between Collectivism and Cooperation. 14
2.9 The relationship between Cooperation and Creativity. 15
2.10 Cooperation as a mediator in the relationship between Collectivism and Creativity. 16
2.11 Age. 17
2.12 Age as a moderator in the relationship between Collectivism and Information Exchange. 18
2.13 Age as a moderator in the relationship between Collectivism and Cooperation. 20
2.14 Task Interdependence. 21
2.15 Task Interdependence as a moderator in the relationship between Collectivism and Information Exchange 23
2.16 Task Interdependence as a moderator in the relationship between Collectivism and Cooperation. 25
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 27
3.1 Research Framework. 27
3.2 Hypothesis Testing. 28
3.3 Construct Measurement. 28
3.3.1 Collectivism. 28
3.3.2 Information Exchange. 29
3.3.3 Cooperation. 30
3.3.4 Creativity. 30
3.3.5 Task Interdependence. 31
3.3.6 Control Variables. 31
3.4 Questionnaire Design. 32
3.5 Sampling Plan. 32
3.6 Data Analysis. 33
3.6.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis. 33
3.6.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). 33
3.6.3 Hierarchical Multiple Regression. 34
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 35
4.1 Descriptive Analysis. 35
4.1.1 Sample and Data Collection. 35
4.1.2 Characteristics of Respondents. 35
4.1.3 Non Response Bias Test. 36
4.1.4 Common Method Variance. 37
4.2 Reliability Test. 38
4.2.1 Collectivism. 38
4.2.2 Information Exchange. 39
4.2.3 Cooperation. 40
4.2.4 Creativity. 41
4.2.5 Task Interdependence. 42
4.2.6 Resource Availability. 42
4.3 Construct Validity. 43
4.3.1 Convergent Validity. 43
4.3.2 Discriminant Validity. 45
4.4 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). 46
4.5 Pearson Correlations Coefficient. 46
4.6 Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis. 49
4.6.1 The Positive Relationship between Collectivism and Information Exchange. 49
4.6.2 The Positive Relationship between Collectivism and Cooperation. 49
4.6.3 The Positive Relationship between Information Exchange and Creativity. 51
4.6.4 The Positive Relationship between Cooperation and Creativity. 51
4.6.5 Information Exchange as Mediator between Collectivism and Creativity. 53
4.6.6 Cooperation as Mediator between Collectivism and Creativity. 53
4.6.7 Age as Moderator between Collectivism and Information Exchange. 55
4.6.8 Task Interdependence as Moderator between Collectivism and Information Exchange. 55
4.6.9 Age as Moderator between Collectivism and Cooperation. 57
4.6.10 Task Interdependence as Moderator between Collectivism and Cooperation. 57
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 59
5.1 Research Conclusions and Discussions. 59
5.1.1 Collectivism, Information Exchange and Creativity. 59
5.1.2 Collectivism, Cooperation and Creativity. 60
5.1.3 Age as moderator. 60
5.1.4 Task Interdependence as moderator. 61
5.2 Research Contributions. 62
5.3 Limitations and Future Research Directions. 63
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 1 Research procedure 4
Figure 3 1 Research framework 27
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3 1 Summary of Hypotheses 28
Table 3 2 Measurement for Collectivistic Orientation - Beliefs 29
Table 3 3 Measurement for Collectivistic Orientation - Values 29
Table 3 4 Measurement for Collectivistic Orientation - Norms 29
Table 3 5 Measurement for Information Exchange 30
Table 3 6 Measurement for Cooperation 30
Table 3 7 Measurement for Creativity 31
Table 3 8 Measurement for Task Interdependence 31
Table 3 9 Measurement for Resource Availability 32
Table 4 1 Characteristics of Targeted Respondents (N=223) 36
Table 4 2 T-test for Non Response Bias 37
Table 4 3 Results of Reliability Test on Collectivism 39
Table 4 4 Results of Reliability Test on Information Exchange 40
Table 4 5 Results of Reliability Test on Cooperation 41
Table 4 6 Results of Reliability Test on Creativity 41
Table 4 7 Results of Reliability Test on Task Interdependence 42
Table 4 8 Results of Reliability Test on Resource Availability 43
Table 4 9 Results of Convergent Validity 44
Table 4 10 Results of Discriminant Validity 45
Table 4 11 Model Fit Indicators for CFA on Each Construct 46
Table 4 12 Pearson Correlations for all Variables 48
Table 4 13 Results of Hierarchical Regression for Relationship between Collectivism, Information Exchange and Cooperation 50
Table 4-14 Results of Hierarchical Regression for Relationship between Information Exchange, Cooperation and Creativity 52
Table 4-15 Results of Hierarchical Regression for Relationship between Information Exchange, Cooperation and Creativity 54
Table 4-16 Results of Hierarchical Regression for Moderating Effect of Age and Task Interdependence between Collectivism and Information Exchange 56
Table 4 17 Results of Hierarchical Regression for Moderating Effect of Age and Task Interdependence between Collectivism and Cooperation 58
Table 5 1 Summary of Hypotheses Results 62
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