進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-1704202014482300
論文名稱(中文) 以壓力心態觀點探討顧客不文明行為的影響:中介歷程與調節效果
論文名稱(英文) Exploring the Influence of Customer Incivility Behavior from the Perspective of Stress Mindset: The Mediation Process and Moderation Effect
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 陳曉鈴
研究生(英文) Hsiao-Ling Chen
學號 R48021011
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 90頁
口試委員 指導教授-方世杰
口試委員-黃瀞瑩
口試委員-周信輝
召集委員-林鉦棽
口試委員-楊舒蜜
中文關鍵字 顧客不文明行為  壓力心態  情緒勞務 
英文關鍵字 customer incivility  stress mindset  emotional labor 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在工作場域中,經常有職場不文明的行為發生,特別在高度人際互動的醫療服務產業中更是屢見不鮮。本研究以壓力交易理論為基礎,為探討顧客不文明行為、壓力心態、壓力克服策略與壓力後果之間的連續中介關係,並使用調節模式以檢驗員工特質與主管特質是否扮演情境因素的影響角色。服務業從業人員需要滿足顧客需求,以維持良好的組織績效。近年來,國內醫療產業在病患即顧客的前提下,逐漸要求護理人員要重視醫療服務消費者的反應與需求。因此,本研究針對護理人員進行調查,以三個時間點收集研究資料並檢驗研究假設,統計分析的結果支持調節式連續中介的理論模式。研究結果顯示,顧客不文明行為會引發不同的壓力心態(正面及負面)與不同的壓力克服策略(深層表演及表層表演),並影響壓力後果。當護理人員的顧客導向特質較高時,會加劇而非緩解顧客不文明行為與負面壓力心態之間的關係,但同時也增強而非削弱顧客不文明行為與正面壓力心態之間的關係;此外,當護理長的僕人領導特質較高時,能降低顧客不文明行為與負面壓力心態之間的關係。最後,本研究根據研究結果提出理論貢獻與研究限制,同時也說明相關的實務建議,以供醫療主管機關及各相關單位管理運用時的參考。
英文摘要 In the workplace, uncivilized behaviors are often occurring, especially in the highly interpersonal interactive medical service industry. This study explores a moderated mediation model, in which whether employee trait and supervisor trait play contextual roles in the sequential mediation between customer incivility, stress mindset of employees, stress coping strategy and stress outcomes. The nursing staff was surveyed to collect research data and test research hypotheses at three time points. The results of statistical analysis supported the theoretical model of moderated sequential mediation. Results show that customer incivility behaviors can trigger different stress mindsets (positive and negative) and different stress coping strategies (deep acting and surface acting), and then affect stress outcome. When nursing staff with higher customer orientation characteristic, it will exacerbate rather than alleviates the relationship between customer incivility behavior and negative stress mindset, but also strengthens rather than weakens the relationship between customer civility behavior and positive stress mindset. Moreover, when the head nurse has higher servant leadership characteristics, it can reduce the relationship between customer incivility behavior and negative stress mindset. Finally, this study illustrates the theoretical contributions and research limitations based on the results of statistical analysis. It also proposes relevant practical suggestions for medical authorities and related units in the planning and use of nursing human resources in the future.
論文目次 摘要.................................................... I
EXTENDED ABSTRACT...................................... II
誌謝.....................................................V
目錄....................................................VI
表目錄................................................VIII
圖目錄..................................................IX
第壹章 緒論...............................................1
第一節 研究背景與動機...................................1
第二節 研究缺口與問題...................................3
第三節 研究目的與貢獻...................................4
第貳章 理論與假設推導.....................................6
第一節 壓力理論 ........................................6
第二節 顧客不文明行為..................................14
第三節 壓力心態 .......................................18
第四節 情緒勞務 .......................................20
第五節 壓力後果 .......................................22
第六節 中介機制的假設推導...............................23
第七節 工作要求-資源模式................................27
第八節 顧客導向的調節機制假設推導.......................28
第九節 僕人領導的調節機制假設推導.......................31
第參章 研究方法..........................................35
第一節 樣本與施測程序..................................35
第二節 量表 ...........................................37
第三節 樣本資料檢測....................................41
第四節 確認性因素分析..................................44
第肆章 研究結果..........................................47
第一節 相關分析 .......................................47
第二節 迴歸分析 .......................................49
第伍章 討論與建議........................................66
第一節 討論 ...........................................66
第二節 理論意涵 .......................................69
第三節 實務意涵 .......................................71
第四節 研究限制與建議..................................73
參考文獻................................................76
參考文獻 Abbas, M., & Raja, U. (2019). Challenge-hindrance stressors and job outcomes: The moderating role of conscientiousness. Journal of Business and Psychology, 34(2), 189-201.
Adams, G. A., & Webster, J. R. (2013). Emotional regulation as a mediator between interpersonal mistreatment and distress. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(6), 697-710. doi:10.1080/1359432X.2012.698057
Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 452-471. doi:10.5465/amr.1999.2202131
Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115. doi:10.5465/amr.1993.3997508
Bae, S. H., Mark, B., & Fried, B. (2010). Impact of nursing unit turnover on patient outcomes in hospitals. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 42(1), 40-49.
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(3), 309-328.
Batson, C. D., Fultz, J., & Schoenrade, P. A. (1987). Distress and empathy: Two qualitatively distinct vicarious emotions with different motivational consequences. Journal of Personality, 55(1), 19-39. doi:doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1987.tb00426.x
Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis. In K. J. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 349-381). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bolton, S. C. (2000). Who cares? Offering emotion work as a ‘gift’in the nursing labour process. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32(3), 580-586. doi:doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2000.01516.x
Boswell, W. R., Olson-Buchanan, J. B., & LePine, M. A. (2004). Relations between stress and work outcomes: The role of felt challenge, job control, and psychological strain. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64(1), 165-181. doi:10.1016/S0001-8791(03)00049-6
Bowling, N. A., & Beehr, T. A. (2006). Workplace harassment from the victim's perspective: A theoretical model and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(5), 998-1012.
Brantley, P. J., Waggoner, C. D., Jones, G. N., & Rappaport, N. B. (1987). A daily stress inventory: Development, reliability, and validity. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 10(1), 61-73. doi:10.1007/bf00845128
Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (2003). Development and validation of the emotional labour scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(3), 365-379.
Brown, T. J., Mowen, J. C., Donavan, D. T., & Licata, J. W. (2002). The customer orientation of service workers: Personality trait effects on self- and supervisor performance ratings. Journal of Marketing Research, 39(1), 110-119. doi:10.1509/jmkr.39.1.110.18928
Bunk, J. A., & Magley, V. J. (2013). The role of appraisals and emotions in understanding experiences of workplace incivility. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(1), 87-105.
Cavanaugh, M. A., Boswell, W. R., Roehling, M. V., & Boudreau, J. W. (2000). An empirical examination of self-reported work stress among U.S. managers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(1), 65-74. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.85.1.65
Chang, E. C. (1998). Dispositional optimism and primary and secondary appraisal of a stressor: Controlling for confounding influences and relations to coping and psychological and physical adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(4), 1109-1120. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.4.1109
Chen, Y., Ferris, D. L., Kwan, H. K., Yan, M., Zhou, M., & Hong, Y. (2013). Self-love's lost labor: A self-enhancement model of workplace incivility. Academy of Management Journal, 56(4), 1199-1219. doi:10.5465/amj.2010.0906
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4), 385-396. doi:10.2307/2136404
Cooper, C. L., Dewe, P., & O’Driscoll, M. P. (2001). Organizational stress: A review and critique of theory, research and applications: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Cortina, L. M. (2008). Unseen injustice: Incivility as modern discrimination in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 33(1), 55-75. doi:10.5465/amr.2008.27745097
Cortina, L. M., Kabat-Farr, D., Leskinen, E. A., Huerta, M., & Magley, V. J. (2013). Selective Incivility as Modern Discrimination in Organizations: Evidence and Impact. Journal of Management, 39(6), 1579-1605.
Cortina, L. M., & Magley, V. J. (2009). Patterns and profiles of response to incivility in the workplace. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(3), 272-288.
Cortina, L. M., Magley, V. J., Williams, J. H., & Langhout, R. D. (2001). Incivility in the workplace: Incidence and impact. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6(1), 64-80. doi:10.1037/1076-8998.6.1.64
Craig, A., Hancock, K., & Craig, M. (1996). The lifestyle appraisal questionnaire: A comprehensive assessment of health and stress. Psychology & Health, 11(3), 331-343. doi:10.1080/08870449608400262
Crawford, E. R., LePine, J. A., & Rich, B. L. (2010). Linking job demands and resources to employee engagement and burnout: A theoretical extension and meta-analytic test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 834-848. doi:10.1037/a0019364
Crum, A. J., Akinola, M., Martin, A., & Fath, S. (2017). The role of stress mindset in shaping cognitive, emotional, and physiological responses to challenging and threatening stress. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 30(4), 379-395. doi:10.1080/10615806.2016.1275585
Crum, A. J., Salovey, P., & Achor, S. (2013). Rethinking stress: The role of mindsets in determining the stress response. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(4), 716-733. doi:10.1037/a0031201
Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499-512. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.499
DePree, M. (2002). Servant-leadership: Three things necessary. In L. Spears (Ed.), Focus on Leadership: Servant Leadership for the 21st Century (pp. 89-100). New York: NY: Wiley.
Dewe, P. (1991). Primary appraisal, secondary appraisal and coping: Their role in stressful work encounters. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64(4), 331-351. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8325.1991.tb00564.x
Dewe, P. (1993). Measuring primary appraisal: Scale construction and directions for future research. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 8(4), 673-685.
Diefendorff, J. M., & Croyle, M. H. (2008). Antecedents of emotional display rule commitment. Human Performance, 21(3), 310-332. doi:10.1080/08959280802137911
Diefendorff, J. M., Richard, E. M., & Croyle, M. H. (2006). Are emotional display rules formal job requirements? Examination of employee and supervisor perceptions. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79(2), 273-298. doi:10.1348/096317905x68484
Diefendorff, J. M., Richard, E. M., & Yang, J. (2008). Linking emotion regulation strategies to affective events and negative emotions at work. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(3), 498-508. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2008.09.006
Donavan, D. T., Brown, T. J., & Mowen, J. C. (2004). Internal benefits of service-worker customer orientation: Job satisfaction, commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Marketing, 68(1), 128-146. doi:10.1509/jmkg.68.1.128.24034
Duffy, M. K., Ganster, D. C., & Pagon, M. (2002). Social undermining in the workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 45(2), 331-351.
Dunlap, B. J., Dotson, M. J., & Chambers, T. M. (1988). Perceptions of real-estate brokers and buyers: A sales-orientation, customer-orientation approach. Journal of Business Research, 17(2), 175-187. doi:10.1016/0148-2963(88)90050-1
Dweck, C. S. (2008). Can personality be changed? The role of beliefs in personality and change. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(6), 391-394. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00612.x
Ehrhart, M. G. (2004). Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 57(1), 61-94. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2004.tb02484.x
Farling, M. L., Stone, A. G., & Winston, B. E. (1999). Servant leadership: Setting the stage for empirical research. Journal of Leadership Studies, 6(1-2), 49-72. doi:10.1177/107179199900600104
Farrell, D. (1983). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect as responses to job dissatisfaction: A multidimensional scaling study. Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 596-607. doi:doi.org/10.5465/255909
Farrell, D., & Rusbult, C. E. (1985). Understanding the retention function: A model of the causes of exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect behaviors. Personnel Administrator, 30(4), 129-140.
Felblinger, D. M. (2008). Incivility and bullying in the workplace and nurses’ shame responses. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic Neonatal Nursing, 37(2), 234-242. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2008.00227.x
Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Gruen, R. J., & DeLongis, A. (1986). Appraisal, coping, health status, and psychological symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(3), 571-579. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.50.3.571
Fullerton, R. A., & Punj, G. (2004). Repercussions of promoting an ideology of consumption: Consumer misbehavior. Journal of Business Research, 57(11), 1239-1249. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(02)00455-1
Gallus, J. A., Bunk, J. A., Matthews, R. A., Barnes-Farrell, J. L., & Magley, V. J. (2014). An eye for an eye? Exploring the relationship between workplace incivility experiences and perpetration. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(2), 143-154. doi:10.1037/a0035931
Ghosh, R., Dierkes, S., & Falletta, S. (2011). Incivility Spiral in Mentoring Relationships: Reconceptualizing Negative Mentoring as Deviant Workplace Behavior. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(1), 22-39. doi:10.1177/1523422311410639
Giumetti, G. W., Hatfield, A. L., Scisco, J. L., Schroeder, A. N., Muth, E. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (2013). What a rude e-mail! Examining the differential effects of incivility versus support on mood, energy, engagement, and performance in an online context. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(3), 297-309. doi:10.1037/a0032851
González-Morales, M. G., & Neves, P. (2015). When stressors make you work: Mechanisms linking challenge stressors to performance. Work & Stress, 29(3), 213-229. doi:10.1080/02678373.2015.1074628
Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotional regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 95-110. doi:10.1037/1076-8998.5.1.95
Grandey, A. A. (2003). When “the show must go on”: Surface acting and deep acting as determinants of emotional exhaustion and peer-rated service delivery. Academy of Management Journal, 46(1), 86-96. doi:10.2307/30040678
Grandey, A. A., Dickter, D. N., & Sin, H.-P. (2004). The customer is not always right: customer aggression and emotion regulation of service employees. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 397-418. doi:10.1002/job.252
Grandey, A. A., Diefendorff, J. M., & Rupp, D. E. (Eds.). (2013). Emotional labor in the 21st century: Diverse perspectives on emotion regulation at work. New York: Routledge.
Grandey, A. A., Fisk, G. M., Mattila, A. S., Jansen, K. J., & Sideman, L. A. (2005). Is “service with a smile” enough? Authenticity of positive displays during service encounters. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 96(1), 38-55. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2004.08.002
Grandey, A. A., Kern, J. H., & Frone, M. R. (2007). Verbal abuse from outsiders versus insiders: comparing frequency, impact on emotional exhaustion, and the role of emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(1), 63-79.
Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness. New York: NY: Paulist Press.
Griffin, B. (2010). Multilevel relationships between organizational-level incivility, justice and intention to stay. Work & Stress, 24(4), 309-323.
Groomes, D. A. G., & Leahy, M. J. (2002). The relationships among the stress appraisal process, coping disposition, and level of acceptance of disability. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 46(1), 14-23. doi:10.1177/00343552020460010101
Groth, M., Hennig-Thurau, T., & Walsh, G. (2009). Customer reactions to emotional labor: The roles of employee acting strategies and customer detection accuracy. Academy of Management Journal, 52(5), 958-974. doi:10.5465/amj.2009.44634116
Hülsheger, U. R., & Schewe, A. F. (2011). On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta-analysis of three decades of research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(3), 361-389. doi:10.1037/a0022876
Hülsheger, U. R., Lang, J. W. B., & Maier, G. W. (2010). Emotional labor, strain, and performance: Testing reciprocal relationships in a longitudinal panel study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(4), 505-521. doi:10.1037/a0021003
Hauge, L. J., Skogstad, A., & Einarsen, S. (2011). Role stressors and exposure to workplace bullying: Causes or consequences of what and why? European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(5), 610-630. doi:10.1080/1359432X.2010.482264
Hemenover, S. H., & Dienstbier, R. A. (1996). Prediction of stress appraisals from mastery, extraversion, neuroticism, and general appraisal tendencies. Motivation and Emotion, 20(4), 299-317. doi:10.1007/bf02856520
Henderson, A. (2001). Emotional labor and nursing: An under‐appreciated aspect of caring work. Nursing Inquiry, 8(2), 130-138. doi:doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1800.2001.00097.x
Hirschman, A. O. (1970). Exit, voice, and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states (Vol. 25): Harvard university press.
Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513-524. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513
Hochschild, A. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. London, England: University of California Press, Ltd.
Hochschild, A. R. (2003). The commercialization of intimate life: Notes from home and work: University of California Press.
Hojat, M., Gonnella, J. S., Erdmann, J. B., & Vogel, W. H. (2003). Medical students' cognitive appraisal of stressful life events as related to personality, physical well-being, and academic performance: a longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(1), 219-235. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00186-1
James, L. R., Demaree, R. G., & Wolf, G. (1993). rwg: An assessment of within-group interrater agreement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(2), 306-309. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.78.2.306
James, N. (1989). Emotional labour: skill and work in the social regulation of feelings. The sociological review, 37(1), 15-42.
James, N. (1992). Care= organisation+ physical labour+ emotional labour. Sociology of Health & Illness, 14(4), 488-509. doi:doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep10493127
Jaramillo, F., & Marshall, G. W. (2004). Critical success factors in the personal selling process: An empirical investigation of Ecuadorian salespeople in the banking industry. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 22(1), 9-25. doi:10.1108/02652320410514906
Jex, S. M. (1998). Stress and job performance: Theory, research, and implications for managerial practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
Kahn, R. L., Wolfe, D. M., Quinn, R. P., Snoek, J. D., & Rosenthal, R. A. (1964). Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. Oxford, England: John Wiley.
Keashly, L. (1997). Emotional Abuse in the Workplace. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 1(1), 85-117. doi:10.1300/J135v01n01_05
Kenny, D. A. (1977). Correlation and causality. New York: John Wiley.
Kern, J. H., & Grandey, A. A. (2009). Customer incivility as a social stressor: The role of race and racial identity for service employees. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(1), 46-57. doi:10.1037/a0012684
Kilby, C. J., Sherman, K. A., & Wuthrich, V. (2018). Towards understanding interindividual differences in stressor appraisals: A systematic review. Personality and Individual Differences, 135, 92-100. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2018.07.001
Lam, W., & Chen, Z. (2012). When I put on my service mask: Determinants and outcomes of emotional labor among hotel service providers according to affective event theory. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 3-11. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.04.009
Landis, R. S., Beal, D. J., & Tesluk, P. E. (2000). A comparison of approaches to forming composite measures in structural equation models. Organizational Research Methods, 3(2), 186-207.
Lauterbach, S. S., & Becker, P. H. (1996). Caring for self: Becoming a self-reflective nurse. Holistic Nursing Practice, 10(2), 57-68.
Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York, NY, US: McGraw-Hill.
Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. American Psychologist, 46(8), 819-834. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.46.8.819
Lazarus, R. S. (2001). Relational meaning and discrete emotions. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research (pp. 37-67). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1986). Cognitive theories of stress and the issue of circularity. In M. H. Appley & R. Trumbull (Eds.), Dynamics of Stress: Physiological, Psychological and Social Perspectives (pp. 63-80). Boston, MA: Springer US.
Lazarus, R. S., & Launier, R. (1978). Stress-related transactions between person and environment. In L. A. Pervin & M. Lewis (Eds.), Perspectives in Interactional Psychology (pp. 287-327). Boston, MA: Springer US.
Leiter, M. P., Price, S. L., & Spence Laschinger, H. K. (2010). Generational differences in distress, attitudes and incivility among nurses. Journal of nursing management, 18(8), 970-980.
LePine, J. A., LePine, M. A., & Jackson, C. L. (2004). Challenge and hindrance stress: Relationships with exhaustion, motivation to learn, and learning performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 883-891. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.883
LePine, J. A., Podsakoff, N. P., & LePine, M. A. (2005). A meta-analytic test of the challenge stressor–hindrance stressor framework: An explanation for inconsistent relationships among stressors and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 764-775. doi:10.5465/amj.2005.18803921
Leymann, H. (1996). The content and development of mobbing at work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(2), 165-184. doi:10.1080/13594329608414853
Lim, S., & Cortina, L. M. (2005). Interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace: The interface and impact of general incivility and sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(3), 483-496. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.3.483
Lim, S., Cortina, L. M., & Magley, V. J. (2008). Personal and workgroup incivility: Impact on work and health outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 95-107. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.95
Lim, S., & Lee, A. (2011). Work and nonwork outcomes of workplace incivility: Does family support help? Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(1), 95-111. doi:10.1037/a0021726
Lim, V. K. G., & Teo, T. S. H. (2009). Mind your E-manners: Impact of cyber incivility on employees’ work attitude and behavior. Information & Management, 46(8), 419-425. doi:10.1016/j.im.2009.06.006
Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural equation modeling, 9(2), 151-173.
Lovelock, C. H. (1994). Product Plus: How Product + Service = Competitive Advantage. US: McGraw-Hill Inc.
Macintosh, G. (2007). Customer orientation, relationship quality, and relational benefits to the firm. Journal of Services Marketing, 21(3), 150-159. doi:10.1108/08876040710746516
Martin, R. J., & Hine, D. W. (2005). Development and validation of the uncivil workplace behavior questionnaire. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(4), 477-490. doi:10.1037/1076-8998.10.4.477
McAvoy, B. R., & Murtagh, J. (2003). Workplace bullying : The silent epidemic. British Medical Journal, 326(7393), 776-777. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7393.776
Meier, L. L., & Spector, P. E. (2013). Reciprocal effects of work stressors and counterproductive work behavior: A five-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(3), 529. doi:10.1037/a0031732
Milam, A. C., Spitzmueller, C., & Penney, L. M. (2009). Investigating individual differences among targets of workplace incivility. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(1), 58. doi:10.1037/a0012683
Miner‐Rubino, K., & Reed, W. D. (2010). Testing a moderated mediational model of workgroup incivility: The roles of organizational trust and group regard. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(12), 3148-3168.
Mitchell, M. S., Greenbaum, R. L., Vogel, R. M., Mawritz, M. B., & Keating, D. J. (2019). Can you handle the pressure? The effect of performance pressure on stress appraisals, self-regulation, and behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 62(2), 531-552.
Mitchell, T. R., & James, L. R. (2001). Building Better Theory: Time and The Specification of When Things Happen. Academy of Management Review, 26(4), 530-547. doi:10.5465/amr.2001.5393889
Naus, F., van Iterson, A., & Roe, R. (2007). Organizational cynicism: Extending the exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect model of employees' responses to adverse conditions in the workplace. Human Relations, 60(5), 683-718. doi:10.1177/0018726707079198
Neubert, M. J., Kacmar, K. M., Carlson, D. S., Chonko, L. B., & Roberts, J. A. (2008). Regulatory focus as a mediator of the influence of initiating structure and servant leadership on employee behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1220-1233. doi:10.1037/a0012695
Peacock, E. J., & Wong, P. T. P. (1990). The stress appraisal measure (SAM): A multidimensional approach to cognitive appraisal. Stress Medicine, 6(3), 227-236. doi:10.1002/smi.2460060308
Pearsall, M. J., Ellis, A. P. J., & Stein, J. H. (2009). Coping with challenge and hindrance stressors in teams: Behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 109(1), 18-28. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2009.02.002
Pearson, C. M., Andersson, L. M., & Wegner, J. W. (2001). When Workers Flout Convention: A Study of Workplace Incivility. Human Relations, 54(11), 1387-1419.
Pearson, C. M., & Porath, C. L. (2004). On incivility, its impact, and directions for future research. In R. W. Griffin & A. M. O’Leary-Kelly (Eds.), The dark side of organizational behavior (pp. 403-425). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Penney, L. M., & Spector, P. E. (2005). Job stress, incivility, and counterproductive work behavior (CWB): The moderating role of negative affectivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(7), 777-796. doi:10.1002/job.336
Pindek, S., & Spector, P. E. (2015). Contextual Factors in Employee Mistreatment. In P. L. Perrewé, J. R. B. Halbesleben, & C. C. Rosen (Eds.), Mistreatment in Organizations (Vol. 13, pp. 193-224): Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Podsakoff, N. P., LePine, J. A., & LePine, M. A. (2007). Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 438-454. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.2.438
Pollard, C. W. (1996). The Soul of the Firm. New York: NY: Harper Business.
Porath, C. L., & Erez, A. (2007). Does rudeness really matter? The effects of rudeness on task performance and helpfulness. Academy of Management Journal, 50(5), 1181-1197.
Porath, C. L., & Pearson, C. M. (2009). How toxic colleagues corrode performance. Harvard Business Review, 87(4), 24.
Porath, C. L., & Pearson, C. M. (2010). The cost of bad behavior. Organizational Dynamics, 39(1), 64-71. doi:10.1016/j.orgdyn.2009.10.006
Porath, C. L., & Pearson, C. M. (2012). Emotional and behavioral responses to workplace incivility and the impact of hierarchical status. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, E326-E357. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2012.01020.x
Rafaeli, A., & Sutton, R. I. (1987). Expression of emotion as part of the work role. Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 23-37. doi:10.5465/amr.1987.4306444
Rodell, J. B., & Judge, T. A. (2009). Can “good” stressors spark “bad” behaviors? The mediating role of emotions in links of challenge and hindrance stressors with citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6), 1438-1451.
Roesch, S. C., & Rowley, A. A. (2005). Evaluating and developing a multidimensional, dispositional measure of appraisal. Journal of Personality Assessment, 85(2), 188-196. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa8502_11
Ruci, L., van Allen, Z. M., & Zelenski, J. M. (2018). Pro-social personality traits, helping behavior, and ego-depletion: Is helping really easier for the dispositionally pro-social? Personality and Individual Differences, 120, 32-39. doi:doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.08.013
Rupp, D. E., & Spencer, S. (2006). When customers lash out: the effects of customer interactional injustice on emotional labor and the mediating role of discrete emotions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 971-978. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.971
Rusbult, C. E., Farrell, D., Rogers, G., & Mainous III, A. G. (1988). Impact of exchange variables on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: An integrative model of responses to declining job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 31(3), 599-627. doi:doi.org/10.5465/256461
Rusbult, C. E., Johnson, D. J., & Morrow, G. D. (1986). Determinants and consequences of exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: Responses to dissatisfaction in adult romantic involvements. Human Relations, 39(1), 45-63. doi:doi.org/10.1177/001872678603900103
Rusbult, C. E., & Zembrodt, I. M. (1983). Responses to dissatisfaction in romantic involvements: A multidimensional scaling analysis. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19(3), 274-293. doi:doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(83)90042-2
Rusbult, C. E., Zembrodt, I. M., & Gunn, L. K. (1982). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: Responses to dissatisfaction in romantic involvements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(6), 1230. doi:doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.43.6.1230
Russell, R. F., & Stone, A. G. (2002). A review of servant leadership attributes: Developing a practical model. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(3), 145-157. doi:10.1108/01437730210424
Sakurai, K., & Jex, S. M. (2012). Coworker incivility and incivility targets' work effort and counterproductive work behaviors: The moderating role of supervisor social support. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(2), 150-161.
Saxe, R., & Weitz, B. A. (1982). The SOCO scale: A measure of the customer orientation of salespeople. Journal of Marketing Research, 19(3), 343-351. doi:10.2307/3151568
Schilpzand, P., De Pater, I. E., & Erez, A. (2016). Workplace incivility: A review of the literature and agenda for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37, S57-S88. doi:10.1002/job.1976
Schultz, R. J., & Good, D. J. (2000). Impact of the consideration of future sales consequences and customer‐oriented selling on long‐term buyer‐seller relationships. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 15(4), 200-215. doi:10.1108/08858620010335056
Searle, B. J., & Auton, J. C. (2014). The merits of measuring challenge and hindrance appraisals. Anxiety, Stress, Coping, 28(2), 121-143. doi:10.1080/10615806.2014.931378
Selye, H. (1974). Stress sans détresse. In: Montréal : Les Éditions La Presse.
Selye, H. (1976). Forty years of stress research: principal remaining problems and misconceptions. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 115(1), 53-56.
Selye, H. (1982). History and present status of the stress concept. In L. Goldberger & S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (pp. 7-17). New York: Free Press.
Shao, R., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2014). Service employees’ reactions to mistreatment by customers: A comparison between north America and east Asia. Personnel Psychology, 67(1), 23-59. doi:10.1111/peps.12021
Shapiro, D. L., Duffy, M. K., Kim, T.-Y., Lean, E. R., & O'Leary-Kelly, A. (2008). "Rude," "uncivil" or "disrespectful" treatment in the workplace. In S. Gilliland, D. Skarlicki, & D. D. Steiner (Eds.), Justice, morality, and social responsibility (pp. 227-262).
Sliter, K. A., Sliter, M. T., Withrow, S. A., & Jex, S. M. (2012). Employee adiposity and incivility: Establishing a link and identifying demographic moderators and negative consequences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(4), 409-424. doi:10.1037/a0029862
Sliter, M., Jex, S., Wolford, K., & McInnerney, J. (2010). How rude! Emotional labor as a mediator between customer incivility and employee outcomes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(4), 468-481. doi:10.1037/a0020723
Sliter, M., Sliter, K., & Jex, S. (2012). The employee as a punching bag: The effect of multiple sources of incivility on employee withdrawal behavior and sales performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(1), 121-139. doi:10.1002/job.767
Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), 653-663. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.68.4.653
Spence Laschinger, H. K., Leiter, M., Day, A., & Gilin, D. (2009). Workplace empowerment, incivility, and burnout: Impact on staff nurse recruitment and retention outcomes. Journal of nursing management, 17(3), 302-311. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2009.00999.x
Stock, R. M., & Hoyer, W. D. (2002). Leadership style as driver of salespeoples' customer orientation. Journal of Market-Focused Management, 5(4), 355-376. doi:10.1023/B:JMFM.0000008074.24518.ea
Stone, A. G., Russell, R. F., & Patterson, K. (2004). Transformational versus servant leadership: A difference in leader focus. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(4), 349-361. doi:10.1108/01437730410538671
Taylor, S. G., Bedeian, A. G., & Kluemper, D. H. (2012). Linking workplace incivility to citizenship performance: The combined effects of affective commitment and conscientiousness. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(7), 878-893.
Taylor, S. G., & Kluemper, D. H. (2012). Linking perceptions of role stress and incivility to workplace aggression: The moderating role of personality. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(3), 316. doi:10.1037/a0028211
Tepper, B. J. (2000). Consequences of abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal, 43(2), 178-190.
Tepper, B. J. (2007). Abusive supervision in work organizations: Review, synthesis, and research agenda. Journal of Management, 33(3), 261-289.
Theodosius, C. (2008). Emotional labour in health care: The unmanaged heart of nursing: Routledge.
Thomas, R. W., Soutar, G. N., & Ryan, M. M. (2001). The selling orientation-customer orientation (S.O.C.O.) scale: A proposed short form. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 21(1), 63-69. doi:10.1080/08853134.2001.10754257
Totterdell, P., & Holman, D. (2003). Emotion regulation in customer service roles: Testing a model of emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8(1), 55-73. doi:10.1037/1076-8998.8.1.55
Van Dyne, L., Cummings, L. L., & Parks, J. M. (1995). Extra-role behaviors: In pursuit of construct and definitional clarity (A bridge over muddied waters). Research in Organizational Behavior, 17, 215-285.
Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 108-119.
van Jaarsveld, D. D., Walker, D. D., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2010). The Role of Job Demands and Emotional Exhaustion in the Relationship Between Customer and Employee Incivility. Journal of Management, 36(6), 1486-1504. doi:10.1177/0149206310368998
Wachner, T., Plouffe, C. R., & Grégoire, Y. (2009). SOCO's impact on individual sales performance: The integration of selling skills as a missing link. Industrial Marketing Management, 38(1), 32-44. doi:10.1016/j.indmarman.2007.11.003
Wallace, J. C., Edwards, B. D., Arnold, T., Frazier, M. L., & Finch, D. M. (2009). Work stressors, role-based performance, and the moderating influence of organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 254-262. doi:10.1037/a0013090
Walsh, B. M., Magley, V. J., Reeves, D. W., Davies-Schrils, K. A., Marmet, M. D., & Gallus, J. A. (2012). Assessing workgroup norms for civility: The development of the Civility Norms Questionnaire-Brief. Journal of Business Psychology, 27(4), 407-420. doi:10.1007/s10869-011-9251-4
Wang, G., Seibert, S., & Boles, T. L. (2013). The Interactive Roles of Leaders' Emotional Labor In Followers' Outcomes. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2013(1). doi:10.5465/ambpp.2013.252
Webster, J. R., & Adams, G. A. (2020). The differential role of job demands in relation to nonwork domain outcomes based on the challenge-hindrance framework. Work & Stress, 34(1), 5-33. doi:10.1080/02678373.2019.1662855
Webster, J. R., Beehr, T. A., & Christiansen, N. D. (2010). Toward a better understanding of the effects of hindrance and challenge stressors on work behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(1), 68-77. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2009.06.012
Webster, J. R., Beehr, T. A., & Love, K. (2011). Extending the challenge-hindrance model of occupational stress: The role of appraisal. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(2), 505-516. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2011.02.001
Williams, M. R. (1998). The influence of salespersons’ customer orientation on buyer‐seller relationship development. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 13(3), 271-287. doi:10.1108/08858629810222298
Wilson, N. L., & Holmvall, C. M. (2013). The development and validation of the Incivility from Customers Scale. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(3), 310-326. doi:10.1037/a0032753
Zapf, D. (2002). Emotion work and psychological well-being: A review of the literature and some conceptual considerations. Human Resource Management Review, 12(2), 237-268. doi:10.1016/S1053-4822(02)00048-7
Zhang, Y., LePine, J. A., Buckman, B. R., & Wei, F. (2014). It's not fair … or is it? The role of justice and leadership in explaining work stressor–job performance relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 57(3), 675-697. doi:10.5465/amj.2011.1110
林鉦棽, & 彭台光. (2006). 多層次管理研究:分析層次的概念、理論和方法. [Multilevel Research in Management: Conceptual, Theoretical, and Methodological Issues in Level of Analysis]. 管理學報, 23(6), 649-675. doi:10.6504/jom.2006.23.06.01
彭台光, 高月慈, & 林鉦棽. (2006). 管理研究中的共同方法變異:問題本質、影響、測試和補救. [Common Method Variance in Management Research: Its Nature, Effects, Detection, and Remedies]. 管理學報, 23(1), 77-98. doi:10.6504/jom.2006.23.01.05
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2025-04-01起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2025-04-01起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw