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系統識別號 U0026-1702201610451500
論文名稱(中文) 災害應變群眾外包平台使用性設計準則
論文名稱(英文) Usability Guidelines for Designing Crowdsourcing Disaster Response Platforms
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 創意產業設計研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Creative Industries Design
學年度 104
學期 1
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 金雨辰
研究生(英文) Yu-Chen Chin
學號 PA6011054
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 100頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊佳翰
指導教授-鄧怡莘
口試委員-簡聖芬
口試委員-洪郁修
中文關鍵字 群眾外包  災害應變  使用性設計準則  使用者經驗 
英文關鍵字 crowdsourcing  disaster response  usability guideline  user experience 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來,天災發生頻率及規模漸增,其損失相當可觀,因此政府與人道團體皆亟欲尋 求合適的應變方法。隨著群眾外包 (crowdsourcing) 的應用發展,在近期數個大型災 害中皆開始應用,雖然帶來創新與改變,但現有平台多為臨時建置或非為災害應變設 計,使用者經驗並非主要考量,成效因此有限。由於目前尚未有相關準則,故本研究 希望探討目前眾包應用於災害應變所面臨的問題,並提出適合建置災害應變眾包平台 的使用性設計準則。

本研究主要包含四個步驟:ㄧ、透過文獻探討與深度訪談,蒐集並分析眾包災害應變 目前所面臨的問題與需求。二、從步驟一的發現中決定欲處理之議題,結合所彙整的 使用性設計準則,以制定切合災害應變情境的初版準則。三、分析並參考現有眾包災 害應變平台之設計,建置兩個原型 (prototype): A 版本遵照準則設計, B 版本則無參 照,並利用使用性測試 (usability test) 檢驗初版準則的成效,以獲取使用回饋。四、 根據測試結果,修改並提出終版準則,最後再利用啟發式評估 (heuristicevaluation) 測 試現有的眾包災害應變平台,以驗證終版準則。

A 版本使用者使用時相對順暢,花費較少時間且答題正確率較高,同時給予不少正面 評價;而 B 版本使用者遇到不少問題,不過其給予的回饋多與準則建議內容相符, 此結果顯示準則的確提供較優良的使用經驗。本研究貢獻為:ㄧ、探討目前眾包災害 應變的主要問題;二、提出十五項建置災害應變眾包平台的使用性設計準則。期望可以協助政府與人道團體快速掌握目前應用情況,也期許準則能協助平台建置人員設計 出符合災害應變情境的眾包平台,讓眾包功能加倍發揮。
英文摘要 Natural disasters are now occurring more frequently, resulting in greater loss and damage. Both governments and international organizations worldwide are therefore working to develop more effective ways to deal with this issue. One approach is to adopt crowdsourcing. Although it has brought great changes to crisis response, the existing platforms seldom consider the user experience since some are built immediately after disasters while others are not designed for this use. In addition, as yet there are no related design guidelines. This research thus examines current problems with leveraging crowdsourcing in this context, and provides a set of usability guidelines for designing better crowdsourcing disaster response platforms.

This research has four main parts. Firstly, in-depth interviews and affinity diagrams were conducted to collect and analyze existing problems. Secondly, in order to develop the guidelines, a set of related guidelines were gathered and consolidated with the findings from the previous phase. Thirdly, two prototype platforms were built, based on the features recognized from an existing platform. While Prototype A followed the guidelines, Prototype B did not. Usability tests were then adopted to evaluate the effects of the proposed guidelines. The final guidelines were revised on the basis of the obtained insights and assessed with heuristic evaluation.

The results showed that the guidelines proved to be useful. The users of Prototype B faced more difficulties while the users of Prototype A completed the tasks faster and more smoothly. In addition, the responses obtained with Prototype A were also more accurate and the feedback from the users of Prototype B mostly corresponded with the guidelines. Overall, this study makes the following, two contributions: the identification of current problems with regard to leveraging crowdsourcing in crisis response, and a set of fifteen usability guidelines for designing crowdsourcing disaster response platforms. The outcomes are expected to help governments and relief agencies to learn more about the current situation and problems of crowdsourcing disaster response, and to help developers build such platforms faster and ensure that they can provide a good user experience.
論文目次 摘要 — i
ABSTRACT — iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS — v
TABLE OF CONTENTS — vi
LIST OF TABLES — viii
LIST OF FIGURES — ix

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background — 1
1.2 Motivation — 2
1.3 Objective — 2
1.4 Thesis overview — 3

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Disaster response — 4
2.2 Crowdsourcing in disaster relief — 5
2.3 Guidelines — 13
2.4 Summary — 15

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.1 Research procedure — 17
3.2 Problem identification — 17
3.3 Guideline development — 18

CHAPTER 4 GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT
4.1 Problem identification — 21
4.2 Preliminary guidelines — 30

CHAPTER 5 PROTOTYPE AND EVALUATION
5.1 Prototype — 42
5.2 Evaluation — 53

CHAPTER 6 USABILITY GUIDELINES
6.1 Usability guidelines — 69
6.2 Heuristic evaluation — 82

CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION
7.1 Research review and contribution — 84
7.2 Limitations — 85
7.3 Future work — 85

REFERENCES — 87
APPENDIXES
Appendix I — 91
Appendix II — 95
Appendix III — 97
Appendix IV — 98
Appendix V — 99
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