進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-1702201501073200
論文名稱(中文) 探討室內壁紙含水量對鄰苯二甲酸二乙基己基酯 (Di-(2ethylhexyl)phthalate, DEHP) 濃度逸散之影響研究
論文名稱(英文) Effects of moisture content on the emission of DEHP [Di-(2ethylhexyl) phthalate] level from the plastic wallpaper
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health
學年度 103
學期 1
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 劉俞均
研究生(英文) Yu-Chun Liu
電子信箱 meaningfor@gmail.com
學號 s76011033
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 87頁
口試委員 指導教授-蘇慧貞
指導教授-李家偉
口試委員-蔡朋枝
中文關鍵字 建築材料  含水量  壁紙  鄰苯二甲酸二乙基己基酯  暴露艙研究 
英文關鍵字 building material  moisture content  wallpaper  di-(2ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)  chamber study 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年全球受極端氣候衝擊,淹水事件頻傳,且國外研究顯示,淹水房屋內之灰塵有較高濃度之鄰苯二甲酸酯類 (phthalate ester, PAEs),國內數據亦發現最被普遍使用之PAE - 鄰苯二甲酸二乙基己基酯 (Di-(2ethylhexyl)phthalate, DEHP) 與潮濕及淹水等建築特性有關。然學界對於室內建築材料的受潮程度與PAEs逸散情形之瞭解甚少,因此本研究擬探討室內PVC裝修材料之含水量對其內PAEs逸散量之影響,PVC材料以市面常用塑膠壁紙為主,並選定DEHP為主要探討對象,實驗情境設定為模擬房屋淹水後15天內室內DEHP自壁紙內逸散情形之短期追蹤。
本研究測試市面上五款常用之壁紙,選用DEHP含量最高者 (2.16 mg/g, 0.22%),固定面積置於2.4 L的玻璃製暴露艙內,裝載磁力攪拌器使空氣均勻分佈,並以人工加濕法穩定控制艙內空氣溫度和相對濕度。經考量前驅實驗之測試結果,本研究進一步選定理想之溫度與相對濕度(28°C、100%)參數條件,並依壁紙含水量分成三個系統:(A) 未添加壁紙(控制組),(B) 3%(乾燥壁紙未浸置水中),(C) 50%(壁紙浸置水中30分鐘);其中對B、C組進行重複試驗。其後每2天收集艙室內灰塵及空氣樣本,持續追蹤15天,最後一天採集艙內壁面之擦拭樣本,所有樣本皆以氣相層析質譜儀 (Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer, GC-MS) 分析DEHP的含量。
本實驗在三組系統內平均空氣與灰塵中DEHP濃度分別為0.34±0.27、0.80±1.01、1.01±1.30 μg/m3及0.14±0.13、0.46±0.48、0.75±0.62 μg/g。實驗結果證實,壁紙含水量愈大,測得之DEHP濃度也越愈高;雖空氣濃度甚低,但其隨著實驗天數增加而有上升的趨勢。整體來看,高含水量 (50%) 壁紙比低含水量 (3%) 者多出43%的逸散質量,且受潮第4天濃度開始上升,第6至15天將會出現高出136~238%之逸散量,顯示材料受潮後需在4天內移除之必要性,以減少室內人員DEHP濃度的暴露。此外,未來對於避免建築材料受潮或其防潮性之強化將有助於減低室內PAEs濃度之逸散,進而將低室內人員之健康風險。
英文摘要 This study aims to examine the effects of moisture content (MC) on the emission of PAEs level from the plastic building materials – the plastic wallpaper. DEHP is selected as the measured target for the emission profile. The plastic wallpaper with highest DEHP level (2,160.67 μg/g, 0.22%) was adopted in the current experiment. Three experimental conditions with different MC% levels of wallpapers are conducted: (A) without wallpaper (control chamber), (B) 3% (dry wallpaper) and (C) 50% (wallpaper soaked in water for 30 minutes). Air and dust samples were collected every second day over 15 days, and the wipe sample was collected in the last day. Higher DEHP concentrations emitted into the air and deposited on the dust are found with higher MC% of the wallpapers (Figure 1). An increasing trend of DEHP levels are associated with the length of the experiment can be found in the air sample (Table 1). Overall, about 43% higher of total DEHP mass released into air, dust and wipe samples was found in the damp wallpapers (MC = 50%) compared to that in the dry ones (MC = 3%). It is suggested that the material should be got rid of within 4 days once it has been damaged by water because of the emission of DEHP mass was found to be increased from the 4th day. It is the first study to evaluate the effects of material moisture on the emission of sVOCs in indoor environments.
論文目次 摘要 III
Extended Abstract V
致謝 IX
目錄 X
表目錄 XII
圖目錄 XIV
第一章、緒論 1
1.1 研究源起 1
1.2 研究問題 3
1.3 研究目的 3
1.4 研究重要性 3
第二章、文獻回顧 4
2.1 鄰苯二甲酸酯類 4
2.2 鄰苯二甲酸酯類物化特性 6
2.3 鄰苯二甲酸酯之代謝與健康危害 7
2.4 室內環境鄰苯二甲酸酯分布情形 12
2.5 鄰苯二甲酸酯類濃度之影響因子 14
2.5.1 溫度 14
2.5.2 建築材料 14
2.5.3 人員行為 15
2.6 建築材料含水量與室內污染物關係 16
第三章、材料與方法 18
3.1 研究材料之選取 18
3.2 實驗流程與條件參數設定 20
3.2.1 前驅實驗 20
3.2.2 正式實驗 22
3.3 實驗系統設備 26
3.3.1 小型暴露艙室 26
3.3.2 樣本採集及材料含水量評估 27
3.4 空氣中DEHP濃度分析 30
3.4.1 試藥及溶劑 30
3.4.2 標準檢量線配置 31
3.4.3 空氣樣本前處理 31
3.4.4 樣本分析儀器 31
3.5 灰塵與擦式樣本DEHP濃度分析 32
3.5.1. 試藥及溶劑 33
3.5.2. 標準檢量線配置 33
3.5.3. 灰塵樣本前處理 33
3.5.4. 樣本分析儀器 33
3.6 分析方法品保品管 34
3.7 統計分析 39
第四章、結果與討論 40
4.1 品保品管執行結果 40
4.1.1 樣本分析品保品管 40
4.1.2 空白樣本分析 41
4.2 前驅試驗結果 43
4.2.1 暴露艙參數穩定情形 43
4.2.2 空氣與灰塵中DEHP濃度分佈 47
4.3 暴露艙溫濕度及材料含水量之穩定度測試 52
4.4 正式實驗暴露艙參數穩定情形 55
4.5 空氣中DEHP逸散濃度與質量估算 59
4.6 灰塵中DEHP逸散濃度與質量估算 65
4.7 暴露艙內壁擦式樣本中DEHP殘留質量 71
4.8 壁紙含水量與DEHP濃度、質量百分比和其逸散率之關係 73
第五章、結論與建議 82
5.1 結論 82
5.2 未來工作建議 82
第六章、參考文獻 83
參考文獻 Afshari A, Gunnarsen L, Clausen P, Hansen V. 2004. Emission of phthalates from PVC and other materials. Indoor air 14(2): 120-128.
Andersen B, Frisvad JC, Søndergaard I, Rasmussen IS, Larsen LS. 2011. Associations between fungal species and water-damaged building materials. Applied and environmental microbiology 77:4180-4188.
Benning JL, Liu Z, Tiwari AJ, Little JC, Marr LC. 2013. Characterizing Gas-Particle Interactions of Phthalate Plasticizer Emitted from Vinyl Flooring. Environmental science & technology.
Bergh C, Åberg KM, Svartengren M, Emenius G, Östman C. 2011. Organophosphate and phthalate esters in indoor air: a comparison between multi-storey buildings with high and low prevalence of sick building symptoms. J Environ Monitor 13(7): 2001-2009.
Blanchard O, Glorennec P, Mercier F, Bonvallot N, Chevrier C, Ramalho O, et al. 2014. Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor air and settled dust in 30 french dwellings. Environmental science & technology 48:3959-3969.
Bornehag CG, Lundgren B, Weschler CJ, Sigsgaard T, Hagerhed-Engman L, Sundell J. 2005. Phthalates in indoor dust and their association with building characteristics. Environmental health perspectives 113(10): 1399-1404.
Bornehag CG, Nanberg E. 2010. Phthalate exposure and asthma in children. International journal of andrology 33(2): 333-345.
Bornehag CG, Sundell J, Weschler CJ, Sigsgaard T, Lundgren B, Hasselgren M, et al. 2004. The association between asthma and allergic symptoms in children and phthalates in house dust: a nested case-control study. Environmental health perspectives 112(14): 1393-1397.
Caldwell JC. 2012. Dehp: Genotoxicity and potential carcinogenic mechanisms—a review. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research 751:82-157.
Clausen PA, Hansen V, Gunnarsen L, Afshari A, Wolkoff P. 2004. Emission of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate from PVC flooring into air and uptake in dust: emission and sorption experiments in FLEC and CLIMPAQ. Environmental science & technology 38(9): 2531-2537.
Clausen PA, Liu Z, Kofoed-Sørensen V, Little J, Wolkoff P. 2011. Influence of Temperature on the Emission of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from PVC Flooring in the Emission Cell FLEC. Environmental science & technology 46(2): 909-915.
Clausen PA, Xu Y, Kofoed-Sørensen V, Little JC, Wolkoff P. 2007. The influence of humidity on the emission of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from vinyl flooring in the emission cell “FLEC”. Atmos Environ 41(15): 3217-3224.
Colon I, Caro D, Bourdony CJ, Rosario O. 2000. Identification of phthalate esters in the serum of young Puerto Rican girls with premature breast development. Environmental health perspectives 108(9): 895-900.
Gevao B, Al-Ghadban AN, Bahloul M, Uddin S, Zafar J. 2013. Phthalates in indoor dust in Kuwait: implications for non-dietary human exposure. Indoor air 23(2): 126-133.
Hauser R, Calafat A. 2005. Phthalates and human health. Occupational and environmental medicine 62(11): 806-818.
Hauser R, Meeker J, Singh N, Silva M, Ryan L, Duty S, et al. 2007. DNA damage in human sperm is related to urinary levels of phthalate monoester and oxidative metabolites. Human reproduction 22(3): 688-695.
Hsu NY, Lee CC, Wang JY, Li YC, Chang HW, Chen CY, et al. 2012. Predicted risk of childhood allergy, asthma, and reported symptoms using measured phthalate exposure in dust and urine. Indoor air 22(3): 186-199.
Huang P-C, Kuo P-L, Chou Y-Y, Lin S-J, Lee C-C. 2009. Association between prenatal exposure to phthalates and the health of newborns. Environment international 35(1): 14-20.
Hyvärinen A, Meklin T, Vepsäläinen A, Nevalainen A. 2002. Fungi and actinobacteria in moisture-damaged building materials — concentrations and diversity. Int Biodeter Biodegr 49:27-37.
Jurewicz J, Hanke W. 2011. Exposure to phthalates: Reproductive outcome and children health. A review of epidemiological studies. Int J Occup Med Env 24(2): 115-141.
Just AC, Whyatt RM, Perzanowski MS, Calafat AM, Perera FP, Goldstein IF, et al. 2012. Prenatal exposure to butylbenzyl phthalate and early eczema in an urban cohort. Environmental health perspectives 120(10): 1475-1480.
Kamrin MA. 2009. Phthalate risks, phthalate regulation, and public health: a review. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B 12(2): 157-174.
Kang Y, Man YB, Cheung KC, Wong MH. 2012. Risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible phthalate esters via indoor dust around the pearl river delta. Environmental science & technology 46(15): 8422-8430.
Kolarik B, Bornehag C-G, Naydenov K, Sundell J, Stavova P, Nielsen OF. 2008. The concentrations of phthalates in settled dust in Bulgarian homes in relation to building characteristic and cleaning habits in the family. Atmos Environ 42(37): 8553-8559.
Kolarik B, Naydenov K, Larsson M, Bornehag CG, Sundell J. 2008. The association between phthalates in dust and allergic diseases among Bulgarian children. Environmental health perspectives 116(1): 98-103.
Kubwabo C, Rasmussen P, Fan X, Kosarac I, Wu F, Zidek A, et al. 2013. Analysis of selected phthalates in Canadian indoor dust collected using household vacuum and standardized sampling techniques. Indoor air 23(6): 506-514.
Langer S, Weschler CJ, Fischer A, Bekö G, Toftum J, Clausen G. 2010. Phthalate and PAH concentrations in dust collected from Danish homes and daycare centers. Atmos Environ 44(19): 2294-2301.
Latini G, De Felice C, Presta G, Del Vecchio A, Paris I, Ruggieri F, et al. 2003. In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and duration of human pregnancy. Environmental health perspectives 111(14): 1783.
López-Carrillo L, Hernández-Ramírez RU, Calafat AM, Torres-Sánchez L, Galván-Portillo M, Needham LL, et al. 2010. Exposure to phthalates and breast cancer risk in northern mexico. Environmental health perspectives (Online) 118:539.
Main KM, Mortensen GK, Kaleva MM, Boisen KA, Damgaard IN, Chellakooty M, et al. 2006. Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age. Environmental health perspectives 114(2): 270-276.
Martin JR, Johnson JF. 1974. Poly (vinyl chloride): Effect of molecular weight and vapor environment on viscoelastic and fatigue properties. J Appl Polym Sci 18:3227-3236.
Meeker JD, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2007. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites may alter thyroid hormone levels in men. Environmental health perspectives 115(7): 1029.
OSHA sampling and analytical Methods, Method 104. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Organic Methods Evaluation Branch OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center Salt Lake City, 1994.
Pant N, Pant A, Shukla M, Mathur N, Gupta Y, Saxena D. 2011. Environmental and experimental exposure of phthalate esters: the toxicological consequence on human sperm. Human & experimental toxicology 30(6): 507-514.
Rank J. 2005. Classification and risk assessment of chemicals: The case of dehp in the light of reach. The Journal of Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies 4.
Rao CY, Riggs MA, Chew GL, Muilenberg ML, Thorne PS, Van Sickle D, et al. 2007. Characterization of airborne molds, endotoxins, and glucans in homes in new orleans after hurricanes katrina and rita. Applied and environmental microbiology 73:1630-1634.
Rudel RA, Perovich LJ. 2009. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air. Atmos Environ 43(1): 170-181.
Schripp T, Fauck C, Salthammer T. 2010. Chamber studies on mass-transfer of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-< i> n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from emission sources into house dust. Atmos Environ 44(24): 2840-2845.
Standard A. 1976. Standard 52–76: Method of testing air-cleaning devices used in general ventilation for removing particulate matter. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc, Atlanta.
Swan SH. 2008. Environmental phthalate exposure in relation to reproductive outcomes and other health endpoints in humans. Environmental research 108(2): 177-184.
Uhde E, Bednarek M, Fuhrmann F. 2001. Phthalic Esters in the Indoor Environment–Test Chamber Studies on PVC‐Coated Wallcoverings. Indoor air 11(3): 150-155.
Uhde E, Salthammer T. 2007. Impact of reaction products from building materials and furnishings on indoor air quality—a review of recent advances in indoor chemistry. Atmos Environ 41:3111-3128.
Zhang Q, Lu X-M, Zhang X-L, Sun Y-G, Zhu D-M, Wang B-L, et al. 2013. Levels of phthalate esters in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children in Nanjing, China. Atmos Environ 69: 258-264.

蔣伶霙.2011. 台灣地區河川環境水體、底泥、魚體雙酚A和壬基酚流布及釋放源解析研究. 成功大學/環境醫學研究所/碩士論文
林千喬.2009. 性早熟女童尿液中鄰苯二甲酸酯代謝物檢測與家戶灰塵暴露之相關性研究. 成功大學/環境醫學研究所/碩士論文
呂怡萱.2009. PVC塑膠粒製造及加工作業勞工DEHP之暴露評估研究
王銘駿.2009. 室內粉塵吸附電纜線中鄰苯二甲酸二乙基己基酯(Di-(2ethylhexyl)phthalate; DEHP)之研究. 高雄第一科技大學/環境與安全衛生工程系/碩士論文
行政院環境保護署環境檢驗所.2002. 鄰苯二甲酸酯類檢測方法-氣相層析儀/電子捕捉偵測器法NIEA R811.21C
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2020-02-17起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2020-02-17起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw