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系統識別號 U0026-1702201215242700
論文名稱(中文) 以字詞提取練習減緩年長者舌尖現象之成效初探
論文名稱(英文) The Effect of Word Retrieval Practice on Reducing the Likelihood of Tip-of-the-Tongue State in the Elderly
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 心理學系認知科學碩士班
系所名稱(英) MS in Cognitive Science
學年度 100
學期 1
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 陳彤威
研究生(英文) Tung-Wei Chen
學號 u76981086
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 71頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳振宇
召集委員-戴浩一
口試委員-林君昱
中文關鍵字 舌尖現象  認知老化  認知訓練 
英文關鍵字 tip of the tongue  cognitive aging  cognitive training 
學科別分類
中文摘要 人口老化是世界各國共同面臨的議題,根據行政院的人口推估報告顯示,台灣將會以很快的速度進入超高齡社會,為因應此問題,政府、醫療單位及許多民間團體都開始積極投入於高齡照護與福利措施,然而,老化包含了生理層面及心智層面,除了身體功能的維持之外,認知功能是否健全也是決定高齡者在晚年是否能擁有高生活品質的重要因素之一。
過去的研究指出,高齡者的工作記憶、處理速度、長期記憶、字詞提取都會因老化而衰退(Park & Reuter-Lorenz, 2009;White & Abrams, 2002),而認知訓練可以改善衰退的情形(Ball et al., 2002),字詞提取功能的退化使高齡者在日常生活中會經常發生「舌尖現象」,「舌尖現象」是指某個特定的字詞到了嘴邊卻突然說不出來的狀況,隨之而來的負面感受使高齡者對此現象產生抱怨,但是過去卻很少有針對字詞提取功能而設計的訓練,因此本研究希望瞭解,字詞提取功能是否也能夠像其他認知功能一樣,透過訓練的方式來延緩衰退,降低舌尖現象發生率。
本研究招募60位平均年齡67歲的老年人為實驗的受試者,以一般知識題做為字詞提取練習的材料,一般知識題具有高舌尖現象誘發率(14%),當受試者發生舌尖現象時,主試者會給予提示引導受試者回憶出正確答案解決舌尖現象,提示類型參考與舌尖現象發生歷程相近的命名困難症的治療方式(Nickels & Best, 1996)為本實驗的獨變項,有「語音提示」、「語意提示」及「不提示」三組,並且以圖片命名測驗做為前、後測,也是本訓練近程轉換效果的參考指標。預期受試者完成訓練後,舌尖現象的發生率降低,語音提示及語意提示皆可幫助提升舌尖現象的解決率,且圖片命名表現進步。
由本研究的實驗結果顯示,三組受試者的舌尖現象發生率都有隨著訓練階段而降低的趨勢,但是只有語音提示可以有效幫助提升解決率,而圖片命名表現在訓練後也有顯著的進步,表示此訓練可以幫助高齡者提升字詞提取功能,且有近程轉換的效果。
英文摘要 Population aging is an important global issue of nowadays. According to the population projection data from Executive Yuan, Taiwan is stepping into super aged society in 2025. In response to this problem , government、medical industry and many civic groups have begun actively involved in senior care and welfare measures. However , aging include not only physiological but also mental aspect , in addition to the body functions , the soundness of cognitive function is a key factor to determining whether the elderly have a high quality life or not.
Previous studies indicates that working memory, processing speed, long- term memory, and word retrieval function will decline with aging(Park & Reuter -Lorenz,2009;White& Abrams, 2002). Some studies shows that cognitive training can improve these decline situation (Ball et al., 2006), but there are very few training tasks designed for word retrieval function. Elders experience more “tip of the tongue “states(TOTs) caused by decline of word retrieval function. The TOTs is a failure to retrieve a word from memory, and it’s often followed by negative emotions (frustration, imminent) so that elders have complained about this phenomenon. Therefore, this study is to understand that if the word retrieval function could be improved by training, such as working memory or processing speed.
This study recruited 60 elders as experimental participants, the average of age is 67 years old. The training material is general knowledge questions for induce TOTs, 14% of the induce rate from pilot study. When subjects report they’re in TOTs, experimenter will give them some information related to the answer as the cue. Refer to the treatments of Anomia, there are three cue types:phonological related, semantic related, and no related cue (Nickels & Best, 1996), participants divided into three groups according to cue types. Picture naming tasks as pre-test and post-test. The predictions of this study are:1. The TOTs incidence become lower, resolved rate become higher after training. 2. Post-test performance will better than pre-test.
The result from this study shows that the incidence of TOTs decreased with training sessions, only phonological related information could help subjects recall target answers to overcome TOTs. Picture naming performance also improved after training.
論文目次 目錄
目錄……………………………………………………………………………… I
表目錄………………………………………………………………………… IV
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………V
第一章 前言 …………………………………………………………………1
第一節 人口老化………………………………………………………… 3
第二節 認知老化………………………………………………………… 6
第三節 認知訓練…………………………………………………………… 9
第二章 舌尖現象與命名困難症………………………………………… 14
日誌法………………………………………………………… 14
實驗法………………………………………………………… 15
第一節 舌尖現象的特定性……………………………………………… 16
第二節 舌尖現象的原因論……………………………………………… 19
阻斷假說……………………………………………………… 19
不完全激發假說……………………………………………… 20
第三節 解決舌尖現象的策略…………………………………………… 22
延後再測……………………………………………………… 22
語音訊息提示………………………………………………… 23
第四節 命名困難症……………………………………………………… 24
第五節 命名困難症的治療方法………………………………………… 25
語音治療法……………………………………………………… 26
語意治療法……………………………………………………… 26
第三章 字詞提取訓練…………………………………………………… 28
第一節 本研究的目的……………………………………………………… 28
第二節 本研究的假設……………………………………………………… 29
第三節 研究方法…………………………………………………………… 29
受試對象……………………………………………………………29
實驗設計……………………………………………………………30
實驗材料…………………………………………………………31
實驗工具………………………………………………………31
實驗流程…………………………………………………………31
預期結果 …………………………………………………………34
第四節 實驗結果分析……………………………………………………… 36
圖片命名作業結果分析…………………………………………36
舌尖現象發生率結果分析…………………………………………37
舌尖現象解決率結果分析…………………………………………39
舌尖現象發生率與解決率之相關分析……………………………41
舌尖現象狀態下的語料………………………………………42
第四章 綜合討論與結論……………………………………………………45
第一節 實驗結果摘要……………………………………………………… 45
第二節 結果討論…………………………………………………………… 46
第三節 問題討論………………………………………………………… 49
訓練材料……………………………………………………………49
受試者的理解能力…………………………………………………50
受試者的動機………………………………………………………50
語音提示的內容…………………………………………………50
第四節 未來的研究方向與結論……………………………………………51
未來的研究方向…………………………………………………51
結論……………………………………………………………… 52
參考文獻 ……………………………………………………………………… 53
中文部分…………………………………………………………53
英文部分…………………………………………………………53
研討會部分………………………………………………………56
媒體部分……………………………………………………………57
附錄一:圖片命名作業的材料……………………………………………58
前測部分………………………………………………………… 58
後測部分……………………………………………………………60
附錄二:各組受試者基本資料的變異數分析………………………63
附錄三:一般知識題初步探測之舌尖誘發率及正確率統計檢定……64
附錄四:圖片命名作業表現之各項統計檢定………………………65
附錄五:舌尖現象發生率之各項統計檢定………………………66
附錄六:舌尖現象解決率之各項統計檢定………………………68
附錄七:各組內舌尖現象發生率與解決率的相關與迴歸分析…71


表目錄
表1-1-1 各國人口老化所需時間比較…………………………………………3
表1-3-1 認知訓練前後分數比較統計表………………………………………10
表1-3-2 簡短36量表分數在24個月期間的變化……………………………11
表2-1-1 舌尖現象與知感狀態下的皮質活化區域比較……………………… 17
表2-2-1 年齡與舌尖現象相關研究整理……………………………………… 21
表3-3-1各組受試者基本資料表之平均數與標準差………………………… 30
表3-4-1 各組圖片命名測驗正確率的平均數與標準差(括弧內)…………… 37
表3-4-2 各組舌尖現象發生率之平均數與標準差(括弧內)………………… 38
表3-4-3 各組舌尖現象解決率之平均數與標準差(括弧內)………………… 40

圖目錄
圖1 成功老化三元素………………………………………………………………2
圖1-1-2 2010年及2060年人口金字塔推估………………………………4
圖1-2-1 Park(2002)橫斷研究資料圖………………………………………7
圖1-2-2 年輕人與老年人做認知測驗中的腦造影圖………………………8
圖1-3-1 非傳統認知介入方式各組任務完成率的比較……………………13
圖2-2-1 傳導不足假說示意圖……………………………………………21
圖2-4-1 交互二階段模型說明圖…………………………………………25
圖2-5-1 語意特徵分析示意圖……………………………………………27
圖3-3-1 訓練實驗流程……………………………………………………32
圖3-3-2 圖片命名測驗流程………………………………………………32
圖3-3-3 受試者回答一般知識題流程圖(語音組)…………………………33
圖3-3-4 受試者回答一般知識題流程圖(語意組)…………………………33
圖3-3-5 受試者回答一般知識題流程圖(控制組)…………………………34
圖3-3-6 舌尖現象發生率的預期結果………………………………………35
圖3-3-7 舌尖現象解決率的預期結果………………………………………35
圖3-3-8 圖片命名測驗的預期結果………………………………………35
圖3-4-1 各組前、後測圖片命名平均正確率比較圖……………………36
圖3-4-2 各組舌尖現象發生率之趨勢圖…………………………………38
圖3-4-3 各組舌尖現象解決率之趨勢圖…………………………………39
圖3-4-4 各組舌尖現象發生率與解決率的散布圖………………………41
圖3-4-5 受試者舌尖現象狀態下的語料分布……………………………43
圖4-1-1 語音提示組的訓練結果…………………………………………45
圖4-1-2 語意提示組的訓練結果…………………………………………46
圖4-1-3 控制組的訓練結果……………………………………………46

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