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系統識別號 U0026-1702201100361400
論文名稱(中文) 室內生物性污染改善效益評估:以幼兒照護機構為例
論文名稱(英文) Assessing remediation effectiveness of indoor biological contamination: the case in daycare center
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health
學年度 99
學期 1
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 許哲維
研究生(英文) Che-Wei Hsu
學號 s7697402
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 103頁
口試委員 指導教授-蘇慧貞
口試委員-李俊璋
口試委員-吳佩芝
口試委員-林啟琪
中文關鍵字 室內空氣品質  幼兒照護機構  真菌  細菌  改善 
英文關鍵字 Indoor Air Quality  Daycare center  Fungi  Bacteria  Intervention 
學科別分類
中文摘要 過去研究指出學齡前孩童暴露於高生物性污染的室內環境中,未來易有較高發生呼吸道疾病的風險。位於亞熱帶氣候區且屬海島型國家的台灣,前期多項研究均發現室內生物性污染指標濃度明顯高於其他地區,使得除住家環境外,孩童所待的主要室內環境-幼兒照護機構,其生物性污染的控制與改善顯得更為重要。本研究挑選兩間不同通風型態的幼兒照護機構,並針對有明顯生物性污染的場所進行改善,同時自同一場所選擇無顯著生物性污染的空間為對照組,以比較改善方案介入後之環境與健康效益和適宜之代表性環境指標。案例A的通風型態為自然通風,改善組經受潮霉斑移除和阻水工程執行後,與水害有關之Aspergillus spp.、Penicillium spp.和yeast等優勢菌種濃度均隨著改善方案的執行而下降;案例B為AHU系統。其管線破損及久未清洗,改善組藉改用全熱式交換器增加室內換氣效率達改善目的,介入後之室內換氣效率約提升2倍且室內真菌濃度明顯降低。研究同步量測物理及化學性指標 (Temp.、RH、PM2.5、TVOC、HCHO、CO和CO2),監測結果發現案例A於改善前後無顯著差異,案例B因全熱式交換器的使用使得CO2濃度大幅降低。整體而言,經校正後發現孩童的健康效益於改善後在沒有感冒時曾出現打噴嚏或流鼻水的症狀上有較低的風險,未來在研究設計中可增加樣本數及延長研究時間藉以完整觀察環境改善與健康表現之間的影響。最後建構本土化幼兒照護機構之室內生物性污染改善流程指引,以供未來實場生物性污染改善參考。
英文摘要 Previous studies have demonstrated that pre-school-aged children are often exposed to high level of biological contaminants indoors, and attributable to higher risk in reporting respiratory diseases. With a hot and humid climate prone to support indoor microbial growth, studies have also identified higher biological concentrations in Taiwan’s indoor environments than those of other countries. In addition to homes, daycare centers may be another major indoor environment where children spend most of their time on a daily basis. Effective control strategy and technology to manage the indoor biological contaminants at acceptable quality is therefore of great importance from a public health standpoint. This study first identified locations and sites with serious biological pollution as case subject and one without obvious concerns as the control site at two daycare centers with different ventilation system. The improvement of environment and health performance associated with the proposed strategy after walk-through examination was also assessed. Natural ventilation was adopted in daycare center A. After removal of the visible mildew and installing waterproofing for the daycare center A, the Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp. and yeast concentrations were remarkably decreased. Daycare center B applied AHU system, and the condition of the air duct was apparently unattended for a long time. A full flow heat exchanger was suggested to decrease fungal contamination by increase air change rate of up to two times. For physical and chemical factors (Ventilation rate, Temp., RH, PM2.5, TVOC, HCHO, CO and CO2), there was no difference at concentrations before and after intervention in daycare center A. On the other hand, the levels of CO2 were significantly reduced in daycare center B. Health benefits contributed by the remediation can be supported by the evidence where lower frequency of reporting symptoms of sneezing or running nose was observed when children were not having a cold. Larger sample size and longer study period should be planned into the study design in the future. Standardized operating procedures for environmental control are completed from this round of exercise to remediate biological contamination of similar environments in the future.
論文目次 中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 viii
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 生物氣膠 3
2-2 生物氣膠之影響因子 3
2-3 生物氣膠之健康效應 4
2-4 SBS與易感受性族群 6
2-5 幼兒照護機構之重要性 6
2-6 室內空氣污染物的移除技術 7
第三章、材料與方法 16
3-1 研究流程 16
3-2 場址挑選原則 17
3-3 採樣架構 20
3-4 環境指標量測與採樣設備 20
3-5 環境指標量測方法 22
3-5-1 生物氣膠採樣方法 22
3-5-2 通風換氣效率量測方法 23
3-5-3 健康指標量測方法 24
3-6 菌種鑑屬方法 24
3-7 改善方法選擇 26
3-8 統計方法 29
第四章 結果與討論 30
4-1 案例建築物介紹 30
4-2 案例A基本資料 31
4-2-1 案例A改善組 31
4-2-2 案例A對照組 32
4-3 案例B基本資料 32
4-3-1 案例B改善組 32
4-3-2 案例B對照組 33
4-4 改善方案 33
4-4-1 案例A 33
4-4-2 案例B 37
4-5 案例A室內空氣污染物改善成效分析 38
4-5-1 生物性指標量測 38
4-5-2 物理及化學性指標量測 47
4-6 案例B室內空氣污染物改善成效分析 49
4-6-1 生物性指標量測 49
4-6-2 物理及化學性指標量測 59
4-7 菌種鑑屬結果 61
4-8 室內人員健康狀況評估 63
第五章 室內生物性污染改善流程指引 71
5-1 現場勘查 71
5-2 環境/健康評估(前測) 74
5-3 擬訂改善方案 75
5-4 環境/健康評估(後測) 76
5-5 改善效益評估 76
5-6 小結 77
第六章 結論與建議 79
6-1 結論 79
6-2 建議 80
參考文獻 81
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