||The design and implementation of an educational assessment system based on accumulating and visualising tacit knowledge of teachers on educational assessments
||Department of Engineering Science
implicit teachers’ assessment knowledge
Assessments, embedded with teachers’ implicit domain knowledge, play an important role in evaluating learners’ comprehension of a subject. The tacit knowledge on the importance of both the concepts and their relationships of a subject, which, if captured, made explicit, and shared around, may greatly help teachers construct more effective assessments. This dissertation proposes a methodology for accumulating teachers’ tacit knowledge of specific courses when they are compiling their assessments, by using an implicit knowledge extraction mechanism. The methodology visualizes the accumulated knowledge, using knowledge maps, which shows the overall importance distribution of course concepts and the closeness of these concepts, to help teachers construct their assessments. Teachers may refer to these maps as they adjust balance among concepts in an assessment by creating test items or by selecting from item banks appropriate test items, recommended by a teacher-cluster-based collaborative filtering mechanism that stays within the individual teacher’s assessment preference. Several experiments were conducted in the third grade natural science courses of elementary school in Taiwan by teachers who were actually teaching the courses. System usage records, questionnaires and interview responses were used for evaluating the usability of the methodology and the satisfaction of using the IKMAAS. The results indicate the potential of the methodology, as each of the teachers agreed that the visualized assessment knowledge helped them to comprehend easily the proportions of concepts they intended to test and helped them to notice clearly concepts that they may have ignored. The promising results confirm the feasibility of the methodology and the system in helping teachers compile their educational assessments easily and precisely. Results of the formative evaluations on techniques were used to improve the system to make it more effective and efficient. All of the methodology and technologies employed by the IKMAAS are well developed and are domain independent, which makes it highly flexible and able to transfer from one course subject domain to another. Furthermore, the results in this study show the potential of using knowledge maps and knowledge accumulating methodologies within the pedagogical paradigm.
Table of Content IV
List of Figures VI
List of Table VII
CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Goals and Contributions 4
1.3 Organisation of this dissertation 6
CHAPTER 2 Literature Review 7
2.1 Course Concepts and Assessment Items 7
2.2 Computer Assisted Assessment System and Tools 8
2.3 Implicit Assessment Knowledge and Knowledge Management 11
2.4 Knowledge Visualisation and Knowledge Map 14
2.5 Test Item Categorisation 20
2.6 Teacher Clustering and Item Recommendation 22
CHAPTER 3 Research Design 29
3.1 The Methodology and the KMAAS Prototype 29
3.1.1 System architecture 29
3.1.2 System Implementation 32
3.2 The Methodology and the IKMAAS 37
3.2.1 Knowledge Accumulation and Visualisation Methodology 37
3.2.2 The IKMAAS Architecture 41
3.2.3 System Operations 44
3.3 Item Recommendation using the Teacher Cluster-based Collaborative Filtering Approach 48
CHAPTER 4 Experiment Design and Procedure 52
4.1. The First Experiment Design 52
4.2. The Second Experiment Design 52
CHAPTER 5 Results and Discussions 54
5.1 Evaluation and Discussion of KMAAS 54
5.1.1 Limitations of the Evaluation of KMAAS 57
5.2 Evaluation and Discussion of IKMAAS 57
CHAPTER 6 Conclusions and Future Work 63
自 述 74
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