||PAnDAS : A Simplified Building Structural Analysis Program
||Department of Architecture
建築因設計工具的演進，造型日趨複雜，而建築系學生的結構知識並不足以應對過於複雜的造型。本研究希望開發一套具有圖形化介面的建築結構輔助設計程式，簡稱PAnDAS（Program for Assisting in Design of Architectural Structures）。讓非建築結構專業背景的使用者，能透過簡單的操作完成簡易結構分析。
PAnDAS: A Simplified Building Structural Analysis Program
Department of Architecture
The purpose of this study is to develop a set of structure analysis program with a graphical user interface that allows users to easily operate and complete simple structural analysis by carrying out a simple operation even without having a professional background of the building structure.
After the users’ needs have been identified through the interviews, this study conducts requirement and program function plans based on the custom software development process, as well as uses an object-oriented approach with the C# language implementation. As for the design of the user interface, guided operation, present parameters and built-in menus are adopted, allowing users to learn software operation, establish the structural model and conduct analysis in a short time.
The core of this program is to analyze the stiffness matrix and also adds other auxiliary functions such as floors’ load distribution, quasi-rigid floor, and the calculation of seismic load. The results will be compared with the professional structure analysis software SAP2000 to verify the correctness of calculation of this program and the rationality of the assumptions. The results of the comparison show that apart from a relatively larger error in the analysis of quasi-rigid floor, the hypothesis of floors’ load distribution and seismic load calculation are indeed reliable.
Keywords: Building structure, Structure analysis, Interface design, Design Tool
Free form has become the mainstream in architectural design recently due to the development of related technologies; nonetheless, general designers’ knowledge on structure is still insufficient to reach to a comprehensive analysis of its structure. On this account, this study attempts to develop an auxiliary design program called PAnDAS (Program for Assisting in Design of Architectural Structures) that can be operated easily for users even with limited basic knowledge and without professional training. It can reduce manual labor and time waste if designers could self-assess the feasibility of the structure design at the initial stage.
In the beginning of the study, the existing structural analysis programs which in-clude the commonly used SAP2000, PISA3D developed by IDEERS, the plug Karam-ba under Rihno/Grasshopper, and the rough estimating program of the sizes of columns exploited by National Cheng Kung University have been thoroughly reviewed as the reference for the development of the interface design, programming architecture and calculation methods of PAnDAS. Further, based on the development process of this study, interviews of users have been conducted in order to have a better understanding of users’ needs and to perform requirements analysis. In addition, the MVC architecture has been referred for the overall planning of the program system of PanDAS, and the structure is shown as in Fig. 1.
Fig. 2 PAnDAS’ program architecture
User Interface Development
Referring to the existing structure analysis software and structure analysis process, the interface of PAnDAS has divided the windows into several areas, including the function area, operation area, display area and data table area based on respective uses as shown in Fig. 2. . Moreover, several auxiliary functions such as operation recheck, function lock, default parameters and quick building of model have been added as well, allowing users to quickly become familiar with the operation of the system.
Fig. 2 PAnDAS’s UI
Analysis Core and Verification
The analysis core of PAnDAS uses the structure matrix method and adds some other auxiliary analysis functions such as the floors’ load distribution, quasi-rigid floor and seismic load calculation. In order to be able to test the correctness of calculation and the applicability of auxiliary functions, this study establishes several analyzing models of different types to compare with the calculated results obtained by commercial software. The comparison includes joint displacement, endpoint reaction and the internal force of elements.
There are two types of verification, simple verification and functional verification. Simple verification examines the correctness of PAnDAS analysis core with a small model, while functional verification uses different models to check the reliability of auxiliary analysis functions.
In verification of the floors ’ load distribution, due to that the shear deformation is not considered in the formula of fixed-end force, the calculated result might have slight error. Furthermore, in comparison of the calculated result of quasi-rigid floor and rigid floor model, there are differenences in the the analysis results due to the differ-enent ways of the energy transfer. When the floor keeps its horizontal position, the dif-ference would still be in an acceptable range; however, when the floor starts to tilt, it would produce significant errors and make the model inaccurate.
During the verification of seismic load calculation and loads separation, the floor would be assumed as rigid when SAP2000 needs to simulate the accidental torsion of the mass. However, as PAnDAS does not have this function, it needs to calculate the the seismic loads of joints and then uses SAP2000 to compare the analysis results. The results of the comparison show that the calculation of seismic load of PAnDAS is relia-ble.
In conclusion, so far on the operating functions, PAnDAS can establish and ana-lyze the structural model, but it is not yet able to show the graphical results, nor to ex-amine the design of structure elements and the design optimization. In addition, the user interface can only be operated through the menu or buttons, which needs a further re-search to compensate for the lack of programming technologies. Moreover, on the ana-lyzing functions, PAnDAS can only run liner static analysis for now, which means that the range of application the analyzed model has been limited. Therefore, it is hoped that this study can be used as a reference for future researchers to conduct a further explora-tion on the areas of material properties, structure types and analysis methods to strengthen the functionality of PAnDAS and to extend the range of its uses.
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 文獻回顧 1
1.3 研究方法與架構 4
1.4 章節概要 6
第二章 程式開發方法與架構設計 7
2.1 開發方法之選擇 7
2.2 需求分析 9
2.3 系統分析與設計 12
2.4 PANDAS架構分析與設計 15
第三章 使用者介面 25
3.1 使用者介面架構分析 25
3.2 介面設計 27
3.3 介面細部設計 28
3.4 設計評估 37
第四章 系統核心 39
4.1 座標系統 39
4.2 結構模型 42
4.3 樓版載重分配 49
4.4 擬剛性樓版 56
4.5 地震力計算方法 57
第五章 程式驗證 67
5.1 基礎驗證 67
5.2 樓版載重分配驗證 72
5.3 擬剛性樓版設定驗證 93
5.4 地震力驗證 106
第六章 結論與建議 117
6.1 結論 117
6.2 建議 119
6.3 適用範圍 120
附錄 A PAnDAS程式類別圖 123
附錄 B 模型M01系列的PAnDAS輸入檔 129
附錄 C 模型M02系列的分析結果與比較 137
附錄 D 模型M03系列的設定與地震力計算 211
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