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系統識別號 U0026-1608201912474400
論文名稱(中文) 高科技產業之企業併購法律問題研究-以美國法為中心
論文名稱(英文) A Study on the Legal Issues of Mergers and Acquisitions in High-Tech Industry: From the Perspectives of US Laws
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 法律學系
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Legal Sciences
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 林宜柔
研究生(英文) I-Jou Lin
學號 U28031031
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 222頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳俊仁
口試委員-劉連煜
口試委員-游啓璋
口試委員-吳盈德
口試委員-何曜琛
中文關鍵字 企業併購  高科技產業  智慧財產法  競爭法  反托拉斯法  實證審察 
英文關鍵字 merger and acquisition  high-tech M&A  takeover  corporate law  intellectual property laws  antitrust law  due diligence 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來,由於科技的快速發展,高科技產業在面臨技術快速變化、技術的複雜度日益增加以及對於縮短產品生命週期的需求下,企業併構變成了達到此一目標最有效率的手段;也使得許多相關公司在其研發方向與佈局策略產生結構上的變化,不僅對於產品研究發展與生產製造相當重視,亦轉而視無形的智慧財產(包括專利及營業秘密等)為重要資產。微軟公司前總裁比爾蓋茲曾經表示:未來高科技公司的最重要資產不再是有形的硬體設備,而是無形的智慧財產。因此,各公司為確保自己的發明不為競爭對手輕易引用,進而取得在同業間之競爭籌碼,無不致力於專利的申請獲得;各國為維護其在產業競爭優勢,並圖藉由賦予各項產品與方法之專利權的保護,創造更廣闊的技術市場與衍生利益,吸引更多人投入創新與開發;與傳統產業不同的是,智慧財產權在高科技產業的合併收購交易中,佔了極大且非常重要的份量;取得目標公司的智慧財產權或者為了消弭智慧財產上的爭議成為高科技產業在收購標的最關注的部份。
為此,智慧財產法與商法在企業併購的過程當中,不只分別扮演重要的角色,在收購智慧財產權或者取得各種智慧財產權的授權與消除侵權爭議時,此二法的交錯,也因為高科技產業在此類收購案質與量的增加而更臻重要;本研究完整討論了智慧財產法在高科技產業收購上的意義與其重要性,同時指出此類收購所會發生的法律爭議,目的在於可以使法界體識智慧財產法在企業併購當中,與公司法、證卷交易法、企業併購法等扮演同等重要的地位外,也指出其與傳統產業在企業併購的過程當中,包括實證審察等程序的不同。
本研究以美國法為中心,因為美國具備完整的企業併購的法律體系,且全球的高科技併購案近八成皆發生於美國本土亦或是美商公司,其併購規模相當大,透過分析美國法在企業透過收購案取得專屬權時所會產生在商法、智慧財產法與競爭法中的爭議,另外,藉由討論數個知名的併購案件來分別討論各種法律在適用於高科技產業時所產生的疑義與解決方法,進而反思與討論,我國法在法律制度的架構上可考量的方向以及準則的設置與相關法律程序之實施建議。
英文摘要 In recent decades, technology driven industries have experienced fast moving technology changes, higher complexity and reduce product life cycles. Like other industries, the high-technology (high-tech) industry operates within a large legal framework of which intellectual property laws are only a part, albeit a crucial one. Most legal debate in the high-tech industry is confined to copyright, patent trademark and trade secret laws, under the major domains of intellectual property law. Unlike acquiring a traditional industry company, the goal of a company purchasing a high-tech company is often the acquisition of coveted rights to intellectual property in the form of licenses that the target either holds or grants.
It is undisputable that intellectual property as an object of target of business and legal status of a technology has gained significant importance, merger and acquisition activities shall and have adapted to the specific intellectual property law requirements when dealing with intellectual property assets. Given merger and acquisition activities in the intellectual property field dominates both in value and volume, understanding how intellectual property rights are involved with mergers and acquisitions is essential.
This study provides a thorough discussion on the legal issues of high-tech merger and acquisition; as well as intellectual property issues within merger and acquisition activities. It aimed as well to distinguish the legal issues among corporate law, intellectual property laws and competition of high-tech mergers and acquisitions from traditional takeovers. This study first identifies issues of merger and acquisition and the role of intellectual property in high-tech industry, then a further discussion of what makes intellectual property significant in a high-tech takeover activity.
Antitrust has been long an issue in mergers and acquisitions, and from the aspect that acquiring an exclusive right may arise more questions, this study intends to analyze the different legal issues and impact among three different domain of the laws – merger and acquisition in corporate law, intellectual property law and antitrust law – makes a thorough discussion on how and what make high-tech mergers and acquisitions different in the legal issues from traditional takeover activities.
Nevertheless, through several high-tech merger cases in the United States, this study attempts to sort out a clear roadmap with significant cases, and compares with cases in Taiwan. Finally, this study provides a complete review and suggestion in the conclusion for law professions in order to recognize the special legal issues in high-tech mergers and acquisitions, hence a proposal may be provided to legislators for a guideline in high-tech merger and acquisition activities.
論文目次 Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation and Purpose 4
1.2 Scope, Limitation and Research Method 10
1.3 Research Structure and Process 12
Chapter 2 Literature Review 15
2.1 Terminology of Mergers and Acquisitions 17
2.2 Mergers 18
2.2.1 Statutory Mergers 20
2.2.1.1 Federal Laws 21
2.2.1.2 State Laws 24
2.2.2 Short-Form Merger 27
2.2.3 Triangular Merger 30
2.2.4 Freeze-out Merger 33
2.3 Acquisitions 34
2.3.1 Assets Acquisition 35
2.3.2 Share Acquisition 36
2.3.2.1 Tender Offer 37
2.3.2.2 Leveraged Buyout 38
2.3.2.3 Stock-for-stock Exchange 40
2.4 Differences in Merger and Acquisition between High-Tech Industries and Traditional Industries 41
2.4.1 Intellectual Properties in M&A Activities 43
2.4.1.1 Intellectual Property Issues of High Tech Industry 45
2.4.1.2 Issues of Acquiring Intellectual Properties 46
2.4.2 Antitrust Issues Arose by Corporate Mergers and Acquisitions 47
2.4.3 Examination Categories 49
2.4.3.1 Horizontal Merger 50
2.4.3.2 Vertical Merger 51
2.4.4 Key Antitrust Issues in High-Tech Mergers and Acquisitions 51
Chapter 3 Mergers and Acquisitions in Corporate Laws 55
3.1 Fiduciary Duties of the Board of Directors in Corporate Laws 57
3.1.1 Duties of the Directors 59
3.1.1.1 Business Judgment Rule and Duty of Care 62
3.1.1.2 Duty of Loyalty 65
3.1.1.3 Duty of Candor and Entire Fairness 67
3.1.2 Rules and Tests from the Historical Development 70
3.1.2.1 The Unocal Test 71
3.1.2.2 The Revlon moment 74
3.2 Hostile Takeovers and Defensive Measures 77
3.2.1 Hostile Takeovers 79
3.2.2 Defensive Tactics against Hostile Takeovers 85
3.2.2.1 Shark Repellents Amendments 87
3.2.2.2 Poison Pills 89
3.2.2.3 Repurchases and Greenmail 92
Chapter 4 Intellectual Properties in High-Tech Mergers and Acquisitions 97
4.1 Intellectual Properties in High Tech Industry 98
4.1.1 Patent 99
4.1.2 Copyright 103
4.1.3 Trademark 106
4.1.4 Other Intangible Properties 109
4.2 Intellectual Properties and Their Key Issues in Mergers and Acquisitions 113
4.3 Intellectual Property Valuation and Aspects of Acquisitions 115
4.3.1 Structural Factors of IP Valuation 117
4.3.2 Valuation Approaches and Their Applications 120
4.4 Intellectual Property and Technology Due Diligence in Mergers and Acquisitions 122
4.4.1 Overview of IP Due Diligence 122
4.4.2 Key Issues of an Intellectual Property Due Diligence 124
Chapter 5 Antitrust and Related Concerns in Mergers and Acquisitions 129
5.1 The Fundamentals of Antitrust Law 130
5.1.1 The Clayton Act 132
5.1.2 The Hart-Scott-Rodino Act 134
5.1.3 Horizontal and Non-Horizontal Merger Guidelines 136
5.2 Antitrust Issues in High-tech Mergers 139
5.2.1 The Economic and Legal Context 140
5.2.1.1 Horizontal Structure 142
5.2.1.2 Horizontal Practices 143
5.2.1.3 Vertical and Related Market Issues 144
5.2.1.4 Network Issues 145
5.2.2 The Interaction of Intellectual Property Law and Antitrust Law 146
Chapter 6 Merger and Acquisition in High-Tech Industries 153
6.1 Motives and Determinations 154
6.2 Recent Development of High-Tech Mergers and Acquisitions 157
6.2.1 Antitrust Issues in High-Tech Mergers and Acquisitions and United States v. Oracle Corporation 160
6.2.1.1 Factual Background 161
6.2.1.2 Issues 164
6.2.1.3 Holdings 164
6.2.1.4 Discussion and Importance of U.S. v. Oracle 165
6.2.2 Intellectual Property Issues in High-Tech Mergers and Acquisitions and Oracle v. Google 166
6.2.2.1 Factual Background 170
6.2.2.2 Issues 172
6.2.2.3 Holdings 172
6.2.2.4 Discussion 174
6.2.3 Other Legal Issues and Broadcom’s Takeover Attempt of Qualcomm 177
6.3 Analyzing Takeovers in Taiwan’s High-Tech Industry 180
6.3.1 Foxconn's Purchase of a Major Stake in Sharp 181
6.3.2 Micron Technology's Acquisition of Inotera Memories 183
6.3.3 ASML Holding's Acquisition of Hermes Microvision 184
6.3.4 ASE's Takeover Attempt of SPIL 185
6.3.5 Media Tec Inc.'s Acquisition on Richtek Technology Corp. 187
Chapter 7 Conclusion 191
Bibliography 196
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9. Chang, Hsin-Ti Freezeout: Comparative Study on the Duty of Disclosure and Fiduciary Duty, 123 CHENGCHI L. REV. 3 (2011).
10. Chin, Andrew Antitrust Analysis in Software Product Markets: A First Principles Approach, 18 HARV. J. LAW & TEC 1 (2004).
11. Chondrakis, George & Farchi, Tomas Technological Similarity in Acquisitions and Innovative Performance Revisited: Does the Nature of Technology Matter? ADVANCED IN MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS VOL. 13, 43 (Emerald Group Publishing 2014).
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30. Hagelin, Ted A New Method to Value Intellectual Property, 30 AIPLA Q. J 353 (2002).
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38. Hovenkamp, Herbert Appraising Merger Efficiencies, 24 GEO. MASON L. REV. 703 (2017).
39. Hummel, Jochem T. and Amiryanay, Nima Determinants of Acquisition performance: A Multi-Industry Analysis, ADVANCES IN MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS, VOL. 14 143 (Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2015).
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41. Israel, Mark, Keating, Bryan, Rubinfeld, Daniel L. & Willing, Robert D. The Delta-Northwest Merger: Consumer Benefits from Airline Network Effects (2008), THE ANTITRUST REVOLUTION 576 (2014).
42. Jackson, Thomas G., U.S. Antitrust and Intellectual Property in Mergers and Acquisitions, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ASSETS IN MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS 7.1 (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2002).
43. Jaffe, Adam & Lerner, Josh Innovation and Its Discontents, WALL ST. J., A14 (2006).
44. Johnson, Paul A. Network effects, antitrust, and falsifiability: Keynote Address at the Antitrust Enforcement Symposium, 5 JOURNAL OF ANTITRUST ENFORCEMENT 341 (Oxford University Press 2017).
45. Kaplow, Louis On the Meaning of Horizontal Agreements in Competition Law, 99 CAL. L. REV. 683 (2011).
46. Katz, Michael L. & Shelanski, Howard A. Mergers and Innovation, 74 ANTITRUST L.J. 1, 62 (2007).
47. Kim, Natalie Three's A Crowd: Towards Contextual Integrity in Third-Party Data Sharing, 28 HARV. J. LAW & TEC 325 (2014).
48. Kirkwood, John B. & Zerbe, Richard O. Jr., the Path to Profitability: Reinvigorating the Neglected Phase of Merger Analysis, 17 GEO. MASON L. REV. 39 (2009).
49. Kohers, Ninon & Kohers, Theodor the Value Creation Potential of High-Tech Mergers, FINANCIAL ANALYSTS JOURNAL BY ASSOCIATION FOR INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH 27 (2000).
50. Leiwin, William L. Congress and the Serman Antitrust Law: 1887-1890, 23 U.CHI.L.REV. 221 (1956).
51. Lemley, Mark A. & McGowan, David Could Java Change Everything? The Competitive Propriety of a Proprietary Standard, 43 ANTITRUST BULL. 715 (1998).
52. Levin, K., MAI v. Peak: Should Loading Operation System Software into RAM Constitute Copyright Infringement? 24 GOLDEN GATE U. L. REV. 649 (1994).
53. Lianos, Ioannis & C., Rochelle New challenges in the intersection of intellectual property rights with competition law: a view from Europe and the United States, CLES RESEARCH PAPER SERIES 66 (2013).
54. Marks, Mitchell Lee and Philip H. Mirvis, Managing the Precombination Phase of Mergers and Acquisitions, ADVANCES IN MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS, VOL. 14 110 (Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2015).
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56. Meyers, Diane Growth through Acquisition or Merger, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY STRATEGIES FOR THE 21ST CENTURY CORPORATION, EDITED BY LANNING G. BRYER, SCOTT J. LEBSON AND MATTHEW D. ASBELL 47 (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2011).
57. Milhaupt, Curtis In the Shadow of Delaware? The Rise of Hostile Takeovers in Japan, 105 COLUMBIA BUS. L. REV. 2171 (2005).
58. Mitchell, Lawrence E. Fairness and Trust in Corporate Law, 43 DUKE L. J. 425 (1993).
59. Nascimento, Ladislau Ribeiro do & Malvezzi, Sigmar Identity: An Instrument For Mergers And Acquisitions, ADVANCES IN MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS, VOL. 14 1(Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2015).
60. Nathan, Rick Valuation of Software Inventions: What Are They Worth In Economic Terms?, SD35 ALI-ABA 145 (1998).
61. Newborn, Steve A. & Snider, Virginia L. the Growing Judicial Acceptance of the Merger Guidelines, 60 ANTITRUST L.J. 849 (1992).
62. Northover, Alexander D. “Enough and as Good” in the Intellectual Commons: a Lockean Theory of Copyright and the Merger Doctrine, 65 EMORY L.J. 1363 (2016).
63. Ordover, Janusz A. & Willig, Robert D. An Economic Definition of Predation: Pricing and Product Innovation, 91 YALE L. J. 8 (1981).
64. Perel, Maayan Reviving the Gatekeeping Function: Optimizing the Exclusion Potential of Subject Matter Eligibility, 23 ALB. L.J. SCI. & TECH. 237 (2013).
65. Pitofsky, Robert Antitrust and Intellectual Property: Unresolved Issues at the Heart of the New Economy, 16 BERK. TECH. L.J. 535 (2001).
66. Posner, Landes William M. & Richard A. Trademark Law: An Economic Perspective, 30 J.L. & ECON. 265 (1987).
67. Posner, Richard A. Antitrust in the New Economy, 68 ANTITRUST L.J. 925 (2001).
68. Ranft, Annette L. Knowledge Preservation and Transfer During Post-acquisition Integration, ADVANCES IN MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS EDITED BY CARY L. COOPER, SYDNEY FINKELSTEIN 434 (Vol. 5 Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2006).
69. Razgaitis, Richard Early-Stage Technologies: Valuation and Pricing, IPHANDBOOK OF BEST PRACTICE 813 (University of New Hampshire School of Law 2007).
70. Robins, Martin B. Intellectual Property and Information Technology Due Diligence in Mergers and Acquisitions: A More Substantive Approach Needed, DEPAUL J. ART TECH. & INTELL. PROP. L. NO. 09-006 321 (2008).
71. Rosch, J. Thomas Antitrust in the High Tech Sector: Mergers, Enforcement and Standardization, 2-4 (Federal Trade Commission, January 31, 2012).
72. Salop, Steven C. Symposium: the Goals of Antitrust: Merger Settlement and Enforcement Policy for Optimal Deterrence and Maximum Welfare, 81 FORDHAM L. REV. 2647 (2013).
73. Sawyer, Jordan T. Comment: Unexpected Turbulence: An Examination of External Factors That Influenced the Doj's Intense Review of The American Airlines/Us Airways Merger and Its Potential Impact on Future Mergers, 80 J. AIR L. & COM. 595 (2015).
74. Sexton, Jennifer C. Acquisitions as an Instrument of Organizational Adaptation through Innovation, THE ROUTLEDGE COMPANION TO MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS 11 (New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group 2016).
75. Shapiro, Carl Competition and Innovation: Did Arrow Hit the Bull’s Eye? THE RATE AND DIRECTION OF INVENTIVE ACTIVITY REVISITED 28 (Josh Lerner & Scott Stern eds. 2012).
76. Sida, Joseph Gregory Antitrust Preliminary Injunctions in Hostile Tender Offers, 30 KAN. L. REV. 491 (1982).
77. Sokol, D. Daniel & Fishkin, James A. Antitrust Merger Efficiencies in the Shadow of the Law, 64 VAND. L. REV. EN BANC 45 (2011).
78. Spulber, Daniel F. & Yoo, Christopher S. Rethinking Broadband Internet Access, 22 HARV. J. LAW & TEC 1 (2008).
79. Stiroh, Lauren Johnston & Rapp, Richard Modern Methods for the Valuation of Intellectual Property, 532 PLI/Pat 817 (1998).
80. Strine Jr., Leo E. The Delaware Way: How We Do Corporate Law and Some of the New Challenges We Face? 30 DEL. J. CORP. L. 673 (2005).
81. Sturiale, Jennifer E. Compulsory Licensing of Intellectual Property As Merger Remedy: A Decision-Theoretic Approach, 72 LA. L. REV. 12 (2012).
82. Subramanian, Guhan "Fixing Freezeouts", 115 YALE L.J. 2 (2005).
83. Teece, Pleatsikis The Analysis of Market Definition and Market Power in the Context of Rapid Innovation, 19 INT’L J. INDUS. ORG. 665 (2001).
84. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), Computer Software and Intellectual Property, OTA-BP-CIT-61 (Stockton Press, 1990).
85. Vries, Geertjan De Enrico Pennings, Block, Joern H. & Fish, Christian Trademark or Patent? The Effects of Market Concentration, Customer Type and Venture Capital Financing on Start-ups’ Initial IP Applications, INDUSTRY AND INNOVATION 327 (Routledge 2016).
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Cases
1. Aberdeen Ry v. Blaikie (1854) 1 Macq HL 461.
2. American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers et atl. V. Columbia Broadcasting System Inc., 441 U.S. 1 (1979).
3. Appalachian Coals, Inc. v. U.S., 288 U.S. 344 (1940).
4. Appellants, King Drug Co., of Florence, Inc. v. SmithLineBeecham Corp., No. 14-1243 (3rd Cir., Nov. 2014).
5. Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805, 812 (Del. 1984).
6. Barkan v. Amsted Inudstries, Inc., 567 A.2d 1279 (Del. 1989).
7. Brehm v. Eisner, 746 A.2d 244, 264 (Del. 2000).
8. Broadcast Music, Inc. v. CBS, 441 U.S. 1 (1979).
9. C&J Energy Services, Inc. v. City of Miami General Employees' & Sanitation Employees' Retirement Trust, 107 A.3d 1049 (Del. 2014).
10. Campbell v. Loew’s Inc., 134 A.2d 852 (Del.Ch. 1957).
11. Campbell v. Potash Corp., 238 F.3d 792 (6th Cir. 2001).
12. Cheff v. Mathes, 199 A.2d 548 (Del. 1964).
13. Chi. Bridge & Iron Co. N.V. v. FTC, 534 F.3d 410, 431 n.11 (5th Cir. 2008).
14. Condec Corp. v. Lukenheimer Co., 230 A.2d 769 (Del.Ch. 1967).
15. Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 474 U.S. 303, 309 (1980).
16. Diamond v. Diehr, 450 U.S. 175 (1981).
17. Dodge v. Ford Motor Co., 204 Mich. 459, 170 N.W. 668 (Mich. 1919).
18. Edgar v. Mite Corporation, 457 U.S. 624 (1982), and CTS Corporation v. Dynamics Corporation of America, 481 U.S. 69 (1987).
19. Ericsson, Inc. v. D-Link System, Inc., Nos. 13-1625, -1631, -1632, -1633 (Fed. Cir. Dec. 4, 2014).
20. FTC v. CCC Holdings Inc. et al. 605 F. Supp. 2d 26 (D.D.C. 2009).
21. Graham v. Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co., 188 A2d 125, 130 (Del. 1963).
22. In re Bilski (In re Bernard L. Bilski and Rand A. Warsaw), 545 F.3d 943, 88 U.S.P.Q.2d 1385 (Fed. Cir. 2008).
23. In Re Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) Litigation, 536 F. Supp. 2d 1129 (N.D. Cal. 2008).
24. In re RJR Nabisco, 57 USLW 2482, Fed. Sec. L. Rep. (CCH) 94, 149.
25. In re Smurfit-Stone Container Corp. Shareholder Litigation, No. 6164-VCP, 2011 WL 2028076 (Del. Ch. May 24, 2011).
26. Kahn v. Lynch Communication Systems, Inc., 638 A.2d 1110,1115 (Del. 1994).
27. Kahn v. M&F Worldwide Corp., 88 A.3d 635 (Del. 2014).
28. Kennecott Copper Corp. v. Curtiss-Wright Corp., 584 F. 2d 1195 (2d Cir. 1978).
29. Kern County Land Co. v. Occidental Petroleum Corp., 411 U.S. 582, 93 S.Ct. 1736, 36 L.Ed.2d 503 (1970).
30. Kewanee Oil Company v. Bicron Corporation, 416 U.S. 470, 481 (1974).
31. Lynch v. Vickers Energy Corporation, 383 A.2d 278, 281 (Del. 1977).
32. Mills Acquisition Co. v. Macmillan, Inc., 559 A.2d 1261 (Del. 1988).
33. Minstar Acquiring Corp. v. AMF, Inc., 621 F.Supp. 1252 (S.D.N.Y.) and Ascaro, Inc. v. Court, 611 F.Supp. 468 (D.N.J. 1985).
34. Missouri Portland Cement Co. v. Cargill, Inc., 498 F 2d 851 (2nd Cir.), cert. denied, 419 U.S. 883 (1974).
35. Moran v. Household International, Inc., 500 A.2d 946 (Del. 1985).
36. Mothew (t/a Stapley & Co) v. Bristol & West Building Society Respondent, EWCA Civ. 533 (24th July, 1996).
37. Oracle Am., Inc. v. Google Inc., 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 74931, 2016 Copy. L. Rep. (CCH) P30,939 (N.D. Cal. June 8, 2016).
38. Oracle America, Inc. v. Google Inc., 750 F. 3d 1339 (Fed. Cir. 2014).
39. Oracle America, Inc. v. Google, Inc., 872 F.Supp.2d 974 (N.D. Cal. 2012).
40. Oracle America, Inc. v. Google, LLC. 2018 U.S. App. LEXIS 7794.
41. Orman v. Cullman 794 A.2d 5 (Del. 2002).
42. Paramount Communications Inc. v. Time Inc., 571 A.2d 1140 (Del. 1990).
43. Paramount Communications, Inc. v. QVC Network, Inc., 637 A.2d 34 (Del. 1994).
44. PPG Industries, Inc. v. Guardian Industries Corp., 597 F.2d 1090 (6th Cir., 1979).
45. Revlon Inc. v. MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings, Inc. (506 A.2d 1346 (Del. 1986).
46. Revlon, Inc. v. MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings, Inc., 506 A.2d 173 (Del. 1986).
47. Rockwell Graphic Systems, Inc. v. DEV Industries, Inc., 925 F.2d 174 (7th Cir. 1991).
48. Rosenfeld v. Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corp., 309 N.Y. 168, 128 N.E.2d 291 (1995).
49. SCM Corp. v. Xerox Corp., 645 F 2d. 1195 (2d Cir. 1981).
50. Shlensky v. Wrigley, 237 N.E. 2d. 776 (Ill. App. 1968).
51. Singer v. Magnavox Co., 380 A.2d 969 (Del. 1977).
52. Smith v. Van Gorkon, 488 A.2d 858 (Del. 1985).
53. Swinney v. Keebler Co., 480 F.2d 573 (4th Cir. 1973).
54. U.S. v. Bazaarvoice, Inc., 13-cv-00133-WHO, slip op. (N.D. Cal., Jan. 8, 2014).
55. U.S. v. Trans-Missouri Freight Association, 166 U.S. 290 (1897).
56. U.S. v. Trenton Potteries Co. et al., 273 U.S. 392 (1927).
57. United States v. Columbia Pictures Corp., 189 F. Supp. 153 (S.D.N.Y.1960).
58. United States v. Comcast Corp., No. 1:11-cv-00106 (D.D.C. Jan 18, 2011).
59. United States v. El Paso Natural Gas Co., 410 U.S. 962 (1973).
60. United States v. Elpida Memory, Case No. CR 06-059 PJH (N.D. Cal. 2006).
61. United States v. Infineon Technologies AG, Case No. 4:04-cr-00299-PJH-1 (N.D. Cal. 2004).
62. United States v. Lever Bros. Co., 216 F. Supp. 887 (S.D.N.Y. 1963).
63. United States v. Microsoft Corporation, 253 F.3d 34 (D.C. Cir. 2001).
64. United States v. Oracle Corporation, 331 F.Supp. 2d 1098 (N.D. Cal. 2004).
65. United States v. Samsung Electronics Company, Limited, and Samsung Semiconductor, Inc., Case No. CR 06-0648-PJH (N.D. Cal. 2005).
66. United States v. Sprint Corp., No. 95-CV-1304 (D.D.C. July 13, 1995).
67. Unitrin, Inc. v. American General Corp., 651 A.2d 1361 (Del. 1995).
68. Unocal Corp. v. Mesa Petroleum Co., 493 A.2d 946 (Del. 1985).
69. Weinberger v. UOP, Inc., 457 A.2d 701 (Del. 1983).
70. Zubulake v. UBS Warburg LLC., 217 F.R.D. 309, 324 (S.D.N.Y. 2003).

Miscellaneous
1. [http://www.allon.info/japan-market-share.html].
2. [http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-04-02/foxconn-signs-deal-ending-sharp-s-105-years-of-independence].
3. [http://www.reuters.com/article/us-sharp-hon-hai-idUSKCN0WW03P].
4. [https://www.nasdaq.com/article/15-of-the-best-mergers-acquisitions-of-2017-cm898464]
5. [https://www.qualcomm.com/invention/qroniclesofinvention/index.html]
6. 15 U.S.C. §§ 1–7.
7. 15 U.S.C. 78n(d)(1).
8. 17 CFR 240.14d-1(a).
9. Andrei Hagiu, Intellectual Property Intermediaries, HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL STRATEGY UNIT CASE NO. 711-486 (January 25, 2012 available at https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Publication%20Files/12-023_0e95cdce-abbf-46ea-b8cb-15a3ebb054ed.pdf.)
10. Andrew Ross Sorkin and Duff Wilson, Pfizer Agrees to Pay $68 Billion for Rival Drug Maker Wyeth, NEW YORK TIMES (January 25, 2009 available at https://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/26/business/26drug.html).
11. Andrew Ross Sorkin and Jeremy W. Peters, Google to Acquire YouTube for $1.65 Billion (available at https://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/09/business/09cnd-deal.html).
12. Anne K. Bingaman, Competition and Innovation: Bedrock of the American Economy, address at the University of Kansas Law School, Lawrence, Kansas (9/19/1996); https://www.justice.gov/atr/speech/competition-and-innovation-bedrock-american-economy.
13. Applied Materials Inc. and Tokyo Electron Ltd. Abandon Merger Plans after Justice Department Rejected Their Proposed Remedy, (DOJ 4/27/2015, available at https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/applied-materials-inc-and-tokyo-electron-ltd-abandon-merger-plans-after-justice-department).
14. Applied Materials Inc. and Tokyo Electron Ltd. Abandon Merger Plans After Justice Department Rejected Their Proposed Remedy, https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/applied-materials-inc-and-tokyo-electron-ltd-abandon-merger-plans-after-justice-department.
15. B. Jeffery Bell, The Acquisition of Control of a United States Public Company [http://media.mofo.com/files/Uploads/Images/1302-The-Acquisition-of-Control-of-a-United-States-Public-Company.pdf.]
16. B. Jeffery Bell, The Acquisition of Control of a United States Public Company, http://media.mofo.com/files/Uploads/Images/1302-The-Acquisition-of-Control-of-a-United-States-Public-Company.pdf
17. Benjamin Gomes-Casseres, What the Big Mergers of 2017 Tell Us About 2018, HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW (December 28, 2017 available at https://hbr.org/2017/12/what-the-big-mergers-of-2017-tell-us-about-2018).
18. Brian Fung and Cecilia Kang, Comcast to Drop Mega-merger with Time Warner Cable, THE WASHINGTON POST (4/24/2015 available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/comcast-to-drop-mega-merger-with-time-warner-cable/2015/04/23/5cb984a6-e9ee-11e4-aae1-d642717d8afa_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.ce2b27ebfee3).
19. Comcast Corp. Press Release (DOJ 4/24/2015, available at https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/comcast-corporation-abandons-proposed-acquisition-time-warner-cable-after-justice-department).
20. Comcast Corporation Abandons Proposed Acquisition of Time Warner Cable After Justice Department and the Federal Communications Commission Informed Parties of Concerns, https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/comcast-corporation-abandons-proposed-acquisition-time-warner-cable-after-justice-department.
21. Delaware General Corporation Law.
22. Donald M. Cameron & Rowena Borenstein, Key Aspects of IP License Agreements 13–15 (2003 available at http://www.jurisdiction.com/lic101.pdf).
23. Elaine D. Ziff and Grace Del Val, IP Due Diligence Issues in M&A Transactions Checklist, THOMSON REUTERS, PRACTICAL LAW INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY & TECHNOLOGY (2014 available at http://us.practicallaw.com/3-501-1681).
24. Embarcadero Technologies and CA Inc. Terminate Proposed Transfer of CA Inc.'s ERwin Data Modeler, https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/embarcadero-technologies-and-ca-inc-terminate-proposed-transfer-ca-incs-erwin-data-modeler.
25. Federal Trade Commission (Bureau of Competition) and Department of Justice (Antitrust Division): Hart-Scott-Rodino Annual Report: Fiscal Year 2014. https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/reports/federal-trade-commission-bureau-competition-department-justice-antitrust-division-hart-scott-rodino.s.c.18a-hart-scott-rodino-antitrust-improvements-act-1976/150813hsr_report.pdf.
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