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系統識別號 U0026-1608201902530200
論文名稱(中文) 市售加工食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯濃度調查與國人暴露風險評估研究
論文名稱(英文) The investigation of PAE levels in processed food stuff and exposure risk assessment
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 吳冠良
研究生(英文) Guan-Liang Wu
學號 S76061046
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 189頁
口試委員 指導教授-李俊璋
召集委員-陳秀玲
口試委員-林信堂
口試委員-張偉翔
中文關鍵字 鄰苯二甲酸酯  加工食品  包裝材料  遷移  健康風險評估 
英文關鍵字 Phthalate esters  processed foods  package materials  migrate  health risk assessment 
學科別分類
中文摘要   鄰苯二甲酸酯 (Phthalate esters, PAEs)為人工合成化合物,廣泛應用於消費產品中,依其分子量高低有不同用途,高分子量之鄰苯二甲酸酯如DEHP,經常作為增塑劑添加於塑膠製品,主要添加於聚氯乙烯 (PVC)之產品中。低分子量之鄰苯二甲酸酯如DMP、DEP及DBP,則作為顏料穩定劑及定香劑,添加於香水、個人衛生用品及油漆等顏料中。由於鄰苯二甲酸酯係添加混合於產品,並非以化學鍵鍵結,因此容易因使用溫度增加、儲存時間增長等因素,導致鄰苯二甲酸酯從產品中釋出或遷移至食品中,其中攝食暴露被認為是人體鄰苯二甲酸酯最主要之暴露貢獻來源。食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯之來源可能來自加工過程、包裝材料及環境污染導致。過去已有研究針對台灣之嬰幼兒食品、飲料、油品及健康食品進行含量調查,但在其他類別之加工食品中目前資訊並不完整,因此亟需針對加工食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯之含量現況進行完整之調查,以了解國內市售加工食品鄰苯二甲酸酯污染狀況。本研究之目的為調查國內市售食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯含量現況,並進行國人經由飲食攝入而暴露鄰苯二甲酸酯導致之健康風險評估。本研究運用系統性抽樣方式收集九大類市售加工食品共614件樣本進行鄰苯二甲酸酯含量分析。食品經萃取、淨化等前處理後以高效率液相層析儀/串聯式質譜儀進行分析,並依據各類加工食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯含量分析結果,進行一般民眾與各性別、年齡層經由飲食攝入暴露鄰苯二甲酸酯之暴露劑量推估,並以危害指標(HI)作為風險判定之依據。614件食品樣本中PAEs檢出率分別為DMP(1%)、DEP(2%)、DIBP(99%)、BBP(99%)、DBP(85%)、DCHP(33%)、DNPP(87%)、DNHP(67%)、DIHP(95%)、DEHP(98%)、DINP(89%)及DIDP(36%)。各鄰苯二甲酸酯之幾何平均濃度以DINP(52.71 ng/g ww)最高,DEHP(51.80 ng/g ww)次之,其次為DEP(32.45 ng/g ww)、DMP(20.19 ng/g ww)、DBP(15.49 ng/g ww)、DIBP(13.14 ng/g ww)、DIDP(11.30 ng/g ww)、DIHP(10.18 ng/g ww)、BBP(9.74 ng/g ww)、DNPP (4.88 ng/g ww)、DNHP(4.34 ng/g ww)、DnOP(3.30 ng/g ww)、DCHP(2.46 ng/g ww)。國內一般民眾經飲食暴露鄰苯二甲酸酯均以0-3歲全體之平均日暴露劑量最高,其次為4-6歲全體。國人所暴露之13種鄰苯二甲酸酯主要來自全榖雜糧類及複合食品為主要貢獻來源。暴露鄰苯二甲酸酯之危害指標(HI)分別根據生殖毒性及肝毒性進行風險計算,各年齡層第95百分位生殖毒性HI介於0.15-0.32,第95百分位肝毒性HI介於0.15-0.45,危害指標均小於1,代表一般民眾經飲食暴露鄰苯二甲酸酯不致於造成健康危害。納入國內其他食品調查文獻後,19-64歲成人第95百分位生殖毒性HI介於0.19-0.20,第95百分位肝毒性HI介於0.25-0.26。如僅考量成人攝食加熱即食食品,19-64歲成人第95百分位生殖毒性HI介於0.13-0.16,第95百分位肝毒性HI介於0.17-0.21,皆不致造成健康危害。但本研究僅以加工食品及過去台灣食品調查研究之數據進行推估,若加入更多種類之食品,是否危害指標會超過1尚無定論。本研究在各類食品之包裝材料中以鋁箔加熱袋及其他材質之塑膠包裝檢測出之鄰苯二甲酸酯含量較高,且食品本身之脂含量可能為影響鄰苯二甲酸酯遷移之因素之一,至於加熱程度則無發現顯著差異。因此業者應在商品上提供正確之加熱方式供消費者遵循,以確保食品安全。
英文摘要 The aims of the present study are to investigate the phthalate levels in processed food and to conduct the dietary risk assessment of phthalate exposure from food consumption. The systematic sampling method were implemented in this study to collect 614 processed food samples of nine categories. All food samples were extracted, cleanup and then analyzed by the HPLC-MS/MS. The analyzed results from each processed food were integrated to conduct the risk assessment for different age and sex groups. The detectable rate of each phthalate was listed as follows: DMP (1%), DEP (2%), DIBP (99%), BBP (99%), DBP (85%), DCHP (33%), DNPP (87%), DNHP (67%), DIHP (95%), DEHP (98%), DINP (89%) and DIDP (36%), respectively. Mean concentration of each phthalate presented as follows DINP (52.71 ng/g ww) and DEHP (51.80 ng/g ww), follow as DEP (32.45 ng/g ww), DMP (20.19 ng/g ww), DBP (15.49 ng/g ww), DIBP (13.14 ng/g ww), DIDP (11.30 ng/g ww), DIHP (10.18 ng/g ww), BBP (9.74 ng/g ww), DNPP (4.88 ng/g ww), DNHP (4.34 ng/g ww), DnOP (3.30 ng/g ww), DCHP (2.46 ng/g ww). The highest ADD of PAEs was found in 0- to 3-year-old group, follow as the 4- to 6-year-old group. Cereal and composite food were the major contributors of PAEs. The HI was calculated according to the reproductive toxicity and hepatic toxicity. The highest HI of both toxicities of PAEs were found in 0-to 3-year-old group, and lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI). The concentration of PAEs found in Alumina-film package and other plastics were higher than the other package materials. The fat content of food might be a affect factor for PAEs migration, in addition, the degree of heating temperature was saved no difference if follow the heating guide. Therefore, the saler should provide the heating direction to the consumer for the safety.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
Extended abstract III
誌謝 VII
目錄 IX
表目錄 XIII
圖目錄 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1 鄰苯二甲酸酯之物化特性及使用情形 4
2-2 食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯分析方法回顧 6
2-2-1  食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯前處理方法 6
2-2-2  食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯之分析儀器 10
2-3 各國食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯含量調查 11
2-3-1  油脂類食品 12
2-3-2  複合食品 12
2-4 鄰苯二甲酸酯之暴露途徑與評估 14
2-5 鄰苯二甲酸酯之代謝與毒理特性 15
2-5-1  鄰苯二甲酸酯之代謝作用 15
2-5-2  細胞毒性與動物實驗 16
2-5-3  人類流行病學研究 17
2-6 各國鄰苯二甲酸酯管制規範與每日耐受量 19
2-7 經食物暴露途徑鄰苯二甲酸酯之健康風險評估 22
第三章 材料與方法 26
3-1 研究架構 26
3-2 食品樣本選取 26
3-2-1  樣本代表性 26
3-2-2  採樣策略 27
3-2-3  樣本類別及數目 27
3-3 食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯類塑化劑檢驗方法 28
3-3-1  食品樣本前處理 28
3-3-3  標準溶液配置 31
3-3-4  儀器分析 32
3-3-5  樣本分析品保品管規範 33
3-3-6  數據演算方式 35
3-3-7  統計方法 35
3-4 一般族群加工食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯類塑化劑飲食暴露風險評估 36
3-4-1  以加工食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯濃度推估日暴露劑量 36
3-4-2  蒙地卡羅模擬法 37
3-4-3  健康風險險評估 38
第四章 結果與討論 40
4-1 加工食品及加熱即食食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯分析之品保品管執行結果 40
4-2 加工食品及加熱即食食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯含量分析 41
4-3 加工食品及加熱即食食品中鄰苯二甲酸酯遷移之影響因子探討 49
4-3-1  加工食品包裝材料對遷移量之影響 49
4-3-2  加工食品脂含量對遷移量之影響 49
4-3-3  加熱即食食品之加熱程度對遷移量之影響 50
4-4 一般民眾經飲食暴露鄰苯二甲酸酯之暴露量評估 52
4-4-1  一般民眾攝食量及體重分布情形 52
4-4-2  一般民眾經飲食暴露鄰苯二甲酸酯之平均每日暴露劑量 53
4-4-3  各食物類別對鄰苯二甲酸酯暴露之貢獻百分比 57
4-4-4  一般民眾暴露鄰苯二甲酸酯攝食風險之敏感性分析 60
4-5 一般民眾經飲食暴露鄰苯二甲酸酯之風險描述探討及不確定性推估 67
4-5-1  一般民眾經飲食暴露鄰苯二甲酸酯之生殖毒性風險 68
4-5-2  一般民眾經飲食暴露鄰苯二甲酸酯之肝毒性風險 69
第五章 結論與建議 71
5-1 結論 71
5-2 建議 72
研究限制 73
參考文獻 74
附件一 食品樣本編碼 188
附件二 食品採樣記錄表 189
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