||Age Effect on Adaptive Changes in Oculomanual Behaviors after Tracking Practices
||Department of Physical Therapy
研究方法： 14位健康年輕人(年齡：23.7 ± 1.1歲)和14位健康老年人(年齡：71.0 ± 5.0歲)參與本實驗。所有受測者執行相同的覓隨練習任務，藉由控制手指施力大小吻合由0.3和0.5赫茲正弦波組合成的複合波，移動範圍6.5公分(或6.2度視角)。覓隨練習任務包含前測和十四次的練習，每次練習的時間為二十秒且每兩次的練習間隔有一分鐘的休息時間，於最後一次練習結束後三十分鐘執行後測，藉以評估兩組受試者在前測與後測時間眼手行為的改變。主要眼手動作參數包含：追蹤吻合度、眼球活動特性和手指活動特徵。追蹤吻合度是眼球活動/手指動作和目標訊號間的最大交互相關係數(CM眼-目標，CM手-目標)，手眼吻合度則是眼球活動和手指動作的最大交互相關係數(CM眼-手)。眼球活動特性包含眼球間歇活動特性(跳視最大速度與跳視發生率)與平滑眼球活動振幅(追視增益)。手指活動特徵特別考量手指間歇活動特性(施力小波振幅、施力小波時間、次動作平均頻率、動作模版除以次動作的比值和次動作的強度)。以使用二因子混合設計變異分析和事後檢定來檢驗年齡(年輕人和老年人)和練習(前測和後測)對所有結果參數的影響。
Objective: Intermittent behaviors present for error correction during sophisticate oculo-manual tracking, which entails intricate coordinative control over the ocular and manual effectors. Age-related differences include declines in processing of sensory information, ocular tracking, and slowing of manual responses; however, previous studies have shown that considerable improvements in oculo-manual performance is possible after practicing. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in oculomanual behaviors after short-term visuomotor tracking practices, with specific focus on adaptive changes in tracking congruency, reciprocity, and intermittent behaviors of the ocular and manual systems.
Methods: Fourteen young adults (age: 23.7 ± 1.1 years) and fourteen older adults (age: 71.0 ± 5.0 years) were recruited in this study. All participants practiced the same oculo-manual tracking task by isometrically pressing a force gauge to match the target signal, which was a combined sinusoidal waveform of 0.3 Hz and 0.5 Hz in a range of 6.5 cm (or 6.2o visual angle). The task was composed of pre-tests and 14 individual practice sessions of 20 seconds with an inter-trial interval of 1 minute. Thirty minutes after the last practice session, post-tests were performed to assess the performance changes. Outcome variables include tracking congruency, eye movement properties and manual action characteristics. Tracking congruency was the cross-correlation maxima between eye movement/finger action and the target signal (CMeye-target, CMfinger-target) and eye-finger coupling was determined between eye movement and finger action (CMeye-finger). Eye movement intermittency was characterized by saccade peak velocity and saccade incidences. Pursuit gain was used to represent the amplitude of smooth ocular movement. Manual intermittent behaviors were featured by force pulse amplitude, force pulse duration, mean frequency of submovement, RMS ratio of movement template to submovement and power of submovement. Two-way mixed-design ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were used to examine the effects of age (young vs. older) and practice (pre-test vs. post-test) on all outcome variables.
Results: Both young and older adults showed better CMfinger-target, CMeye-target and CMeye-finger after practice. Young adults exhibited a similar tracking congruency for the finger and eye after practice, whereas the older group presented a manual tracking congruency apparently inferior to ocular tracking congruency. Young adults presented decreased saccade peak velocity and saccade incidences after practice, but older adults did not show significant differences in saccade peak velocity; moreover, young adults revealed much lower saccade peak velocity compared to older adults in the post-test. Furthermore, both groups displayed decreased pursuit gain without significant differences; however, young adults showed apparently lower pursuit gain compared to older adults no matter pre-test or post-test. Manual action characteristics were distinctive between young and older adults. Young adults demonstrated decreased force pulse amplitude, force pulse duration and power of submovement, and increasing mean frequency of submovement after practice. However, older adults did not present differences in variables of manual action result from practice. Besides, young adults revealed lower force pulse amplitude and power of submovement compared to older adults in the post-test. It is interesting that young adults exhibited increasing RMS ratio of template to submovement after practice and was much larger than older adults in the post-test.
Conclusion: After short-term practice, young and older adults demonstrated marked improvements in visuomotor tracking underlying distinctive adaptive changes in intermittent behaviors of ocular and manual effectors. The scenarios strongly indicate age-dependent learning strategies for visuomotor tracking. The lacking in adaptive changes in error correction of the older adults during visuomotor tracking may confine to degradation of sensory information processing.
List of Tables...X
List of Figures...XI
Chapter 1. Introduction...1
1.1 Eye-hand coordination for visuomotor tracking...1
1.1.1 Kinematic properties and interaction between manual action and ocular movements...1
1.2 Age-related differences in ocular and manual systems...2
1.2.1 Functional degradation in aged ocular movements...3
1.2.2 Visuo-manual tracking in the elderly...4
1.3 Age effect on motor learning...6
1.4 Movement intermittency in visuomotor tracking...7
1.4.1 Saccade and submovement...7
1.5 Rationales, research questions, and hypotheses...8
Chapter 2. Methods...10
2.2 Experimental setup and procedures...10
2.3 Data analysis...12
2.4 Statistical analysis...15
Chapter 3. Results...16
3.1 Tracking congruency...16
3.1.1 Finger tracking congruencies (CMfinger-target)...16
3.1.2 Eye tracking congruencies (CMeye-target)...17
3.1.3 Eye-finger coupling (CMeye-finger)...18
3.2 Eye movement properties...18
3.2.1 Saccade peak velocity...18
3.2.2 Saccade incidences...19
3.2.3 Pursuit gain...20
3.3 Manual action characteristics...20
3.3.1 Pulse amplitude...20
3.3.2 Pulse duration...21
3.3.3 Mean frequency...22
3.3.4 RMS ratio of template to submovement...22
3.3.5 Power of submovement...23
Chapter 4. Discussion...24
4.1 Geriatric influences...24
4.1.1 Inferior ocular and manual tracking performance of the elderly...24
4.1.2 Altered ocular and manual intermittent behaviors for the elderly...26
4.2 Strategic differences in visuomotor learning with age...28
4.2.1. Age-dependent improvements of tracking congruency for ocular and manual effectors...29
4.2.2. Age-dependent visuomotor learning in view of intermittent behaviors...30
Chapter 5. Conclusion...33
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