||Decision-making Research on the Design of Public Barrier-free Facilities
||Department of Industrial Design
Public Barrier-free facility Design
Non-quantitative fuzzy decision-making
Quality Function Deployment
With the acceleration of global aging and the improvement of people's living standards, improving the living environment of vulnerable groups has become a problem that cannot be ignored. Public barrier-free facilities are the basic guarantee for vulnerable groups such as the elderly and the disabled to participate in social life. However, due to the differences in the needs of people with obstacles, the decision-making evaluation of public barrier-free facilities design has the characteristics of fuzzy, uncertain and non-quantitative multi-criteria. It is difficult for evaluators to describe the evaluation results with clear scores, which will directly affect the objectivity and accuracy of the evaluation results of design schemes, and then lead to the design results cannot meet meet the user needs well.
Therefore, this research proposes a fuzzy decision-making evaluation model to solve the non-quantitative fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making problem and help evaluator extract the best product design scheme. This decision-making evaluation model includes three phases: the phase one is to select the final evaluation criteria by using fuzzy semantics variables combined with fuzzy TOPSIS evaluation method; the phase two is to screen out the key product design elements by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD); the phase three is to screen out the best design scheme by using fuzzy operation and maximum and minimum set fuzzy ranking method. After three stages of evaluation and decision-making analysis, finally extract a high-quality public barrier-free facilities design scheme that meets the needs of vulnerable groups such as elderly and the disabled, so as to improve the quality of life and living environment of the vulnerable groups and improve life satisfaction.
Finally, this research takes the design evaluation of barrier-free toilet facilities in Xiamen as an example to verify the feasibility of the fuzzy decision-making evaluation model proposed before. Firstly, five evaluation experts used fuzzy semantics variables to make non-quantitative evaluation on 20 items of initial evaluation criteria that met the user's needs. The importance of each criterion was calculated by using the fuzzy TOPSIS evaluation method. Seven items with the highest weight value were selected as the final evaluation criteria of the design scheme, that is, the evaluation criteria of the end-user's needs. Then, five evaluation experts used Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to convert the end-user needs evaluation criteria into 13 product design elements, weighted the nine key product design elements closest to user needs, and developed 10 barrier-free toilet facility design schemes based on the results. Finally, five evaluation experts used fuzzy semantics variables to evaluate the seven evaluation criteria of each design scheme. The overall fuzzy evaluation values of each design scheme were obtained by using the fuzzy operation of the system. The overall fuzzy evaluation values of each design scheme were converted into a single clear value and prioritized with the help of the maximum and minimum set fuzzy ranking method. The best design scheme is A8. The results show that the design scheme A8 can not only rotate freely for the wheelchair, but also not be restricted by the entrance orientation and the condition of length and width of plane space. Its spatial layout and the settings of barrier-free facilities can well meet the key user needs. Among all the design schemes, design scheme A8 has outstanding performance in facility design of three evaluation criteria, barrier-free accessory function rationality, the beauty of appearance, and call and rescue function rationality. Design scheme A8 has advantages in facility design of two evaluation criteria, tactile function of guide blindness rationality and privacy space planning rationality. The performance of two evaluation criteria, the care area of accompanying personnel rationality and wheelchair moving parking space rationality, is relatively good, and there is room for improvement. If necessary, the method of the second and third phases of the model can be used again to develop products based on the scheme A8, and the optimal solution is evaluated. The parameters of the design scheme can provide a scientific reference for the formulation of design criteria of Xiamen public barrier-free toilets.
Therefore, the evaluation decision-making model proposed in this research can not only take into account non-quantitative and multi-standard evaluation decision-making issues, but also effectively improve the objectivity and accuracy of the evaluation results. It is helpful for the evaluators to understand the advantages and disadvantages of the evaluation design scheme in the evaluation criteria design, so as to achieve the purpose of improving product quality.
TABLE OF CONTENTS……vii
LIST OF TABLES……ix
LIST OF FIGURES…… x
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION……1
1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION……1
1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE……2
1.3 RESEARCH METHODS……3
1.3.1 Data Collection……3
1.3.2 Quality Function Deployment……3
1.3.3 Fuzzy Theory……3
CHAPTER 2 Literature review……5
2.1 DESIGN OF PUBLIC BARRIER-FREE FACILITIES……5
2.1.1 The Overview of Public Barrier-free Facilities and Design……5
2.1.2 General Situation of Public Barrier-free Toilet Facilities and Design……15
2.2 QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT……20
2.2.1 The Principle and Method of QFD……21
2.2.2 Advantages and limitations of QFD……23
2.3 FUZZY THEORY……24
2.3.1 Fuzzy Semantic Variables……25
2.3.2 FUZZY TOPSIS……27
2.3.3 Fuzzy Mathematics Operation……28
2.3.4 Maximum and Minimum Set Sorting Method……29
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHOD……31
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH CASE ANALYSIS AND RESULTS……33
4.1 CASE OF SELECTION……33
4.2 CASE OF CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS COLLWCTION AND ANALYSIS……34
4.3 CASE OF DESIGN ATTRIBUTE CONVERSION AND WEIGHT……40
4.4 CASE OF SCHEME DESIGN……42
4.5 CASE OF SCHEME DESIGN WEIGHT……49
4.6 CASE OF PRIORITIZATION OF DESIGN SCHEMES……53
4.7 CASE OF RESULT ANALYSIS AND SUGGESTIONS……54
CHAPTER 5 RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS……60
5.1 RESEARCH CONCLUSION……60
5.2 RESEARCH LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS……61
Appendix A.1 Questionnaire Survey on User Needs of Barrier-free Public Toilet Facilities……69
Appendix A.2 Expert Evaluation Questionnaire on User Needs Project for Barrier-free Public Toilet Facilities Design……73
Appendix A.3 Expert Evaluation Questionnaire on User Needs Project for Barrier-free Public Toilet Facilities Design……75
Afacan, Y., & Gurel, M. O. (2015). Public toilets: an exploratory study on the demands, needs, and expectations in Turkey.Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 42(2),242-262.
Akbaş, H., & Bilgen, B. (2017). An integrated fuzzy QFD and TOPSIS methodology for choosing the ideal gas fuel at WWTPs. Energy, 125, 484-497.
Bellman, R. E., & Zadeh, L. A. (1970). Decision-making in a fuzzy environment. Management science, 17(4), B-141.
Bhattacharya, A., Sarkar, B., & Mukherjee, S. K. (2005). Integrating AHP with QFD for robot selection under requirement perspective. International journal of production research, 43(17), 3671-3685.
Bichard, J. A., & Knight, G. (2012). Improving public services through open data: public toilets. Municipal Engineer, 165(ME3), 157-165.
Brad, S. (2009). Concurrent multifunction deployment (CMFD). International Journal of Production Research, 47(19), 5343-5376.
Chan, L. K., & Wu, M. L. (2002). Quality function deployment: A literature review. European journal of operational research, 143(3), 463-497.
Chen CT (2001) A fuzzy approach to select the location of the distribution center. Fuzzy Sets Syst, 118:65–73
Chen, Shan-Huo. (1985): Ranking fuzzy numbers with maximizing set and minimizing set. In Fuzzy Sets and Systems 17 (2), pp. 113–129.
Cho, J., Chun, J., Kim, I., & Choi, J. (2015). QFD based benchmarking logic using topsis and suitability index. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2015.
Chua, S. C., Lim, H. S., Oh, T. H., & Pang, S. Y. (2013). On the possibility of fuzzy method and its mathematical framework in OBE measurements. Knowledge-Based Systems, 37, 305-317.
Chuanmei, H., & Zongyi, W. (2016). Study on the influence of material to urban public facilities design. Oxidation Communications, 39(2 A), 2133-2139.
Cudney, E. A., & Gillis, W. L. (2016). Quality Function Deployment Implementation in Construction: A Systematic Literature Review. Frontiers of Engineering Management, 3(3), 224-230.
Deciu, E. R., Ostrosi, E., Ferney, M., & Gheorghe, M. (2005). Configurable product design using multiple fuzzy models. Journal of Engineering Design, 16(2), 209-233.
DuBose, J., MacAllister, L., Hadi, K., & Sakallaris, B. (2018). Exploring the Concept of Healing Spaces. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 11(1), 43-56.
Feng Xi. (2010). Balance in Design, Balance Design - On Barrier-free Design of Public Transportation Facilities. Northern Art: Journal of Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts, (1), 71-71.
Gao Jing. (2008). Talking about Barrier-free Design of Residential Toilet. Shanxi Architecture, 34 (11), 72-73.
Griffin, A., & Hauser, J. R. (1993). The voice of the customer. Marketing science, 12(1), 1-27.
Han, S., Yang, L., Yu, L., & Zhong, P. (2011). Study on Improving Design of Gasoline Engine with Quality Function Deployment. Advanced Science Letters, 4(6-7), 2452-2456.
Hexi. (2014). Research on Barrier-free Facilities of Contemporary Urban Pedestrian Overpasses. Jiangxi Building Materials, (7), 191-192..
Iranmanesh, S. H., Rastegar, H., & Mokhtarani, M. H. (2014). An intelligent fuzzy logic–based system to support quality function deployment analysis. Concurrent Engineering, 22(2), 106-122.
Janeček, P. (2017). Accessible tourism for all: current state in the Czech business and non-business environment.
Kamvysi, K., Gotzamani, K., Andronikidis, A., & Georgiou, A. C. (2014). Capturing and prioritizing students’ requirements for course design by embedding Fuzzy-AHP and linear programming in QFD. European Journal of Operational Research, 237(3), 1083-1094.
Ko, Y. C., & Lo, C. H. (2016). Application of green quality function deployment and fuzzy theory to the design of notebook computers. Journal of Interdisciplinary Mathematics, 19(4), 843-858.
Kwong, C. K., & Bai, H. (2003). Determining the importance weights for the customer requirements in QFD using a fuzzy AHP with an extent analysis approach. Iie Transactions, 35(7), 619-626.
Layton, N. A., & Steel, E. J. (2015). “An environment built to include rather than exclude me”: Creating inclusive environments for human well-being. International journal of environmental research and public health, 12(9), 11146-11162.
Lee, A. S. (2014). The investigation into the influence of the features of furniture product design on consumers' perceived value by fuzzy semantics. South African Journal of Business Management, 45(1), 79-93.
Lid, I. M. (2014). Universal design and disability: An interdisciplinary perspective. Disability and rehabilitation, 36(16), 1344-1349.
Li, M., Jin, L., & Wang, J. (2014). A new MCDM method combining QFD with TOPSIS for knowledge management system selection from the user's perspective in intuitionistic fuzzy environment. Applied soft computing, 21, 28-37.
Li Gaofeng, Duan Jinjuan, Lai Qing, & Wei Chen-mei. (2013). Discussion on Barrier-free Toilet Design for People with Physical Disabilities - Taking Users of Manual Wheelchairs as an Example. Chinese Rehabilitation Theory and Practice, 19 (4), 393-397.
Li Hanlin, Shi Jin, & Gao Nan. (2013). Research on Barrier-free Facilities of Contemporary Urban Pedestrian Overpasses. Modern Urban Studies, (3), 64-69.
Li Yao. (2015). Elevator Design Analysis Based on Barrier-free Design Concept. Prospects. Science and Technology, 28,140.
Liu Bo. (2014). Case Analysis and Research on the Optimal Design of Urban Public Toilets. Packaging Engineering, 35 (10), 117-121.
Maskery, H. (2007). Crossing the digital divide—possibilities for influencing the private-sector business case. The Information Society, 23(3), 187-191.
Nikonova, A. A. (2016). The state program" Accessible environment" As condition of dissolution of disability barriers in RUSSIA. Vestnik Tomskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta-Filosofiya-Sotsiologiya-Politologiya, 33(1), 76-88.
Qi Ruiwen, Xiong Xingfu, & Wanli. (2006). Barrier-free Bathroom Space Design for the Elderly. Journal of Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, 12 (2), 93-95.
Rashid, S. N. S. A., Hussain, M. R., & Yusuff, R. M. (2008). Designing homes for the elderly based on the anthropometry of older Malaysians. Asian Journal of Gerontology Geriatrics, 3(3), 75-83.
Rogulj, K., & Jajac, N. (2018). Achieving a Construction Barrier–Free Environment: Decision Support to Policy Selection. Journal of Management in Engineering, 34(4), 04018020.
Şengül, Ü., Eren, M., Shiraz, S. E., Gezder, V., & Şengül, A. B. (2015). Fuzzy TOPSIS method for ranking renewable energy supply systems in Turkey. Renewable Energy, 75, 617-625
Siu, K. W. M. (2006). Design quality of public toilet facilities. International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering, 13(04), 341-354.
Tan, K. C., & Shen, X. X. (2000). Integrating Kano's model in the planning matrix of quality function deployment. Total quality management, 11(8), 1141-1151.
Tutuncu, O., & Lieberman, L. (2016). Accessibility of hotels for people with visual impairments: From research to practice. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 110(3), 163-175.
Wang, Q. (2017). Research on the assessment of psycholinguistic teaching effect with triangular fuzzy information. Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, 32(1), 1139-1146.
Wang Mingzi, & Li Xiong. (2010). Investigation and Research on Barrier-free Facilities in Nanjing. Agricultural Science and Technology and Information: Modern Gardens, (3), 55-57.
Wang Xiaorong, Dong Ya, & Jia Weiyang. (2013). Investigation and Design Strategy Analysis of Barrier-free Signs in Tianjin. Northern Arts: Journal of Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts, (1), 94-96.
Wang Xiaoyu. (2009). Barrier-free Design of Bathroom in Apartments for the Elderly. Hebei Industrial Science and Technology, 26 (6), 522-524.
Weng Caiqiong, & Chuang Shixian. (2014). Construction of General Safety Design Criteria for Residential Bathroom Space - Targeting Apartment Buildings in Taipei. Journal of China University of Science and Technology, (59), 73-91.
Wu Fan. (2015). Analysis of Barrier-free Landscape Design Principles and Methods. Abstract Edition: Engineering Technology, (50), 163-163.
Wu, J., & Chiclana, F. (2014). Visual information feedback mechanism and attitudinal prioritisation method for group decision making with triangular fuzzy complementary preference relations. Information Sciences, 279, 716-734.
Xiang, Z. R., Zhi, J. Y., Dong, S. Y., Li, R., & He, S. J. (2018). The impacts of ergonomics/human factors of wheelchair/user combinations on effective barrier-free environments design: A case study of the Chinese universal rail coach layout. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 67, 229-241.
Xu Hanrui. (2012). Discussion on Barrier-free Design of Information Indicating Facilities in Public Environment - Take Landscape Environment as an Example. Design, (10), 80-81.
Xu Juanyan. (2009). Current Situation and Countermeasures of Barrier-free Bathroom Product Design. Journal of Jiangsu Normal University of Technology: Natural Science Edition, 15 (3), 58-64.
Ye Rongqing. (2013). Design and Implementation of a Barrier-free Facility Map Service System Based on Sky Map Fujian. Standardization of Surveying and Mapping, 29 (1), 31-33.
Yi Hong, Zhang Bingmei, & Zhan Jie. (2015). Exploration of Information Barrier-free Services in Public Libraries Oriented by Information Disadvantaged Groups. Library Work and Research, 1 (01), 78-8.
Yin Nan. (2008). Application of Barrier-free Design in Indoor Residential Toilet. Today's Keyuan, (2), 156-156.
Yu, J., Ma, G., & Jiang, X. (2017). Impact of the built environment and care services within rural nursing homes in China on quality of life for elderly residents. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 24(6), 1170-1183.
Yue Xiang. (2013). Enlightenment of General Design of Urban Public Transportation Facilities in Berlin to China. Journal of Chifeng University: Natural Science Edition, (6), 26-29.
Zadeh, L. A. (1965). Fuzzy sets. Information and control, 8(3), 338-353.
Zhang, E. (2015). Analyzing the effects of different signs to increase the opportunity of designated van accessible parking spaces (Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas).
Zhang Lei, & Zhang Pin. (2003). Research on Barrier-free System Design of Toilet in Elderly Living Space. Packaging Engineering, 24 (6), 94-95.
Zhang Wenxin. (2014). Discussion on Barrier-free Design of Municipal Roads. Urban Architecture, (17), 288-288.
Zhang Jianmin. (2008). Barrier-free Toilet Design. Journal of Guizhou University: Natural Science Edition, 25 (2), 198-200.
Zhang Xiaochun, Zhang Yunlong, Sun Chao, & Xu Jianmin. (2014). Exploration and Practice of Public Transport Barrier-free System Planning in Shenzhen. Highway, 59 (6), 165-171.
Zhong Zhenya, & Shen Liming. (2012). Barrier-free Kitchen and Bathroom Space Design for the Elderly. Shanxi Architecture, 38 (5), 8-9.