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系統識別號 U0026-1605201416163600
論文名稱(中文) 衛星測高於台灣地層下陷監測之應用
論文名稱(英文) Monitoring Land Subsidence in Taiwan using Satellite Altimetry
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 測量及空間資訊學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Geomatics
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 鄭又嘉
研究生(英文) You-Jia Cheng
學號 P66001075
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 108頁
口試委員 指導教授-郭重言
口試委員-鄭凱謙
口試委員-葉大綱
中文關鍵字 衛星測高  地層下陷 
英文關鍵字 Satellite altimetry  Land subsidence 
學科別分類
中文摘要 臺灣人口主要集中於沿海平原地區,根據經濟部水利署資料指出台灣西半部地區為嚴重地層下陷區域,而地層下陷不可回覆且將造成重大災害,因此精確監測臺灣本島上嚴重地層下陷區域為一重要課題。本研究利用可提供快速且週期性的大範圍監測地表面變化之衛星測高技術來監測台灣西半部地區地層下陷情形,計算陸地高程異常來分析陸地變化趨勢速率。但衛星測高應用於陸地時會因地表面覆蓋植被或建物等,造成衛星測高儀接收的脈衝波形訊號複雜化而難以得到精確之觀測量,因此需利用波形重定技術改正複雜波形訊號之影響,本研究使用改良型門檻值演算法(Modified Threshold Retracker, MTR)與子波形門檻值演算法(Subwaveform Threshold Retracker, STR)對台灣西半部之陸地測高資料進行波形重定,藉由比較以MTR與STR波形重定計算之陸地高程變化趨勢速率來驗證STR應用於陸地波形之可行性,成果顯示STR波形重定所計算之陸地變化趨勢成果與MTR計算成果一致,證明STR應用於陸地波形之可行性。衛星測高使用於微波輻射儀來計算對流層濕延遲量,但微波輻射儀於陸地面上無法使用,因此在陸地面上一般使用氣象模型進行對流層濕延遲量的改正,但氣象模型為全球性資料,為評估其改正精度,本研究加入以全球定位系統(Global Positioning System, GPS)估計之對流層濕延遲量來進行改正,比較改正北港衛星追蹤站資料估計的對流層濕延遲量與改正氣象模型計算的對流層濕延遲量於元長與土庫之陸地高程異常變化趨勢速率,成果顯示改正GPS估計之對流層濕延遲量成果標準偏差與改正氣象模型之成果標準偏差並無明顯差異,原因可能為對於陸地測高精度而言,對流層濕延遲之影響還不足以呈現出顯著之差異。
本研究計算結果與1843個精密水準資料所計算之台灣地殼高程變動成果進行比較,成果顯示本研究計算台灣西半部之陸地變化趨勢速率與精密水準資料之成果趨勢具有一致性,其相關係數達0.96,其差異量之標準偏差為0.61至0.72 cm/yr,平均速率差異為0.38至0.52 cm/yr。
英文摘要 The objective of this research is using satellite altimetry to monitor the subsiding areas of Taiwan. Meanwhile, using global position system derived (GPS-derived) tropospheric wet delay to evaluate the accuracy of vertical deformation rates of subsiding areas. The time span of altimetry data covers 1992 to 2002 and 2008 to 2014 and the time span of GPS data covers 1995 to 2002 and 2008 to 2011.When satellite altimetric radar waveforms reach non-ocean surfaces, the midpoint of leading edge in the waveforms has displacements which leads to inaccurate measurements. Therefore, the waveform retracking techniques were developed to improve the accuracy of altimetry measurements for the applications on observing non-ocean surface. This research uses the Modified Threshold Retracker (MTR) and Subwaveform Threshold Retracker (STR) to improve the accuracy of altimetry measurements. The land surface height anomalies and the differences of land surface height anomalies which can remove the cycle signal of land surface height anomalies are used to analyze the vertical deformation rates. The results show that the accuracy of vertical deformation rate of land surface height anomalies corrected by GPS-derived tropospheric wet delay and the one corrected by tropospheric wet delay of weather model do not have significant difference in the research areas. The possible reason is that the effect of tropospheric wet delay does not display obvious difference for the accuracy of satellite altimetry over land. The vertical deformation rates of differences of land surface height anomalies are similar to the vertical deformation rates of land surface height anomalies, showing the cycle signal of land surface height anomalies does not show obvious effect in vertical deformation rates.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT IV
誌謝 VIII
目錄 IX
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機與目的 1
1-2 文獻回顧 4
1-3 研究方法 6
1-4 論文架構 7
第二章 衛星測高與波形重定 8
2-1 衛星測高介紹 8
2-2 衛星測高原理 11
2-3 衛星測高誤差來源 14
2-4 測高衛星簡介 18
2-4-1 TOPEX/POSEIDON衛星 18
2-4-2 JASON-2衛星 22
2-5 測高資料 24
2-5-1 TOPEX/POSEIDON和JASON-2測高資料與誤差改正 25
2-6 波形介紹與波形重定 28
2-6-1 改良型門檻值演算法 31
2-6-2 子波形門檻值演算法 34
第三章 精密單點定位估計對流層濕延遲 37
3-1 對流層延遲原理 37
3-2 對流層延遲修正模式 41
3-2-1 Saastamoinen 對流層模式 41
3-2-2 Niell 映射函數 42
3-2-3 對流層水平梯度 46
3-3 精密單點定位 48
3-3-1 精密單點定位基本原理 51
3-3-2 精密單點定位誤差來源 54
3-4 精密單點定位處理流程 58
第四章 資料處理與成果分析 59
4-1 研究區域與計算流程 59
4-2 全球定位系統資料和對流層濕延遲量計算與驗證 65
4-3 成果分析 70
4-3-1 改正GPS對流層濕延遲量之測高陸地變化趨勢成果分析 72
4-3-2 MTR和STR演算法計算之陸地變化趨勢成果分析 78
4-3-3 陸地變化趨勢成果與GPS和精密水準資料計算之地殼高程變動成果比較 90
第五章 結論與建議 95
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