||Research of Organolead Halide Perovskite Electronic Devices
||Department of Electrical Engineering
Perovskite solar cells
Perovskite resistive random-access memory
In the past ten years, the efficiency of organolead halide perovskite solar cells has jumped from 3.8% in 2009 to 25.2% in 2019. It has adjustable and good optoelectronic properties, variable but low temperature non-vacuum process and poor water-oxygen resistance. These properties make organolead halide perovskite of research value in both academic and commercial applications. This thesis studies solar cells and resistive memory made by organolead halide perovskite as the main material.
When water and potassium halide simultaneously doped in the perovskite precursor lead iodide solution of two-step method, there is no significant change in the surface of the perovskite film, but the photovoltaic conversion efficiency(PCE) increased caused by open-circuit voltage(VOC), short-circuit current(ISC) and fill factor(FF) increased. Through photoluminescence(PL) measurement, it can be seen that doping of only potassium iodide or potassium chloride can effectively improve the non-radiative recombination defects in the film or interface. From Auger electron spectroscopy(AES) depth analysis, it can be seen that the potassium signal penetrates into the hole transport layer and the electron transport layer. Compared with the above analysis, it can be confirmed that the potassium ion improves the efficiency of the perovskite solar cell after improving the interface. Potassium iodide was also doped in the perovskite resistive memory of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MAPbI3/PMMA/Al structure. Appropriate potassium iodide doping can increase cycle endurance and retention time. Excessive potassium iodide doping made the film pores and damaged memory characteristics. It can be seen that the potassium iodide doping mainly enhances the crystallinity of the perovskite film from consistent PL and X-ray diffraction(XRD) analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectrum(XPS) depth analysis indicated that the potassium ions mainly act on the PEDOT:PSS/MAPbI3 interface, and the reduction in defects makes devices difficult to be permanently opened or shorted for the path in the resistive memory.
In order to make less defects in the perovskite film, high preferring orientation and large-grain perovskite film is a possible research direction. Three-step method was applied to make perovskite film. First, voided lead sulfide grains were deposited by chemical bath method. And then flaky lead iodide grains were formed after heating with the iodine sheet. Finally, after annealing with methylammonium iodide(MAI), a high preferring orientation and large-grain perovskite film was obtained. Comparing with perovskite film of similar thickness made by two-step method, the memory on/off ratio is slightly higher, but the operating current is 103 times lower by lead sulfide method. It represented lower power consumption and longer lifetime.
In summary, this study uses doped potassium halide and high preferring orientation organolead halide perovskite film to repair defects in the film and its interface of layers, making it a better application in electronic components.
List of publications I
Table caption IX
Figure caption X
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1-1 Organic perovskite 1
1-2 Perovskite solar cell 3
1-3 Process of organic perovskite film 5
1-4 Perovskite resistive memory 7
Chapter 2 Effect of co-doping water and potassium halide into perovskite solar cells 9
2-1 Preface 9
2-2 Experimental Section 11
2-3 Result and Discussion 13
2-4 Summary 22
2-5 Supporting Information 24
Chapter 3 Resistive memory properties of perovskite device doped with potassium iodide 32
3-1 Preface 32
3-2 Experimental Section 34
3-3 Result and Discussion 35
3-4 Summary 44
Chapter 4 PbS-buffered three-step growth method improve memory properties of perovskite device 45
4-1 Preface 45
4-2 Experimental Section 46
4-2-1 PbS-buffering process 47
4-2-2 Spin-coating process 47
4-2-3 Fabrication of RRAM device 48
4-2-4 Sample characterization 48
4-3 Result and Discussion 49
4-4 Summary 61
4-5 Supporting Information 62
Chapter 5 Conclusions 67
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