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系統識別號 U0026-1601201222444300
論文名稱(中文) 抗登革病毒非結構性蛋白1之C端抗體與自體抗原蛋白質雙硫鍵異構酶在登革致病機制中的角色
論文名稱(英文) Role of Antibodies against C-terminus of Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 and Autoantigen Protein Disulfide Isomerase in Dengue Disease Pathogenesis
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 基礎醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
學年度 100
學期 1
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 萬書彣
研究生(英文) Shu-Wen Wan
學號 S5893132
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 109頁
口試委員 指導教授-林以行
召集委員-莊偉哲
口試委員-黎煥耀
口試委員-劉校生
口試委員-胡承波
口試委員-伍安怡
中文關鍵字 登革病毒  非結構性蛋白1  自體抗體  分子相似性  疫苗  蛋白質雙硫鍵異構酶  內皮細胞 
英文關鍵字 dengue virus  nonstructural protein 1  autoantibody  molecular mimicry  vaccine  protein disulfide isomerase  endothelial cell 
學科別分類
中文摘要 登革病毒 (dengue virus; DENV) 感染的病患會呈現不同嚴重程度的症狀,由輕微可自行痊癒的登革熱 (dengue fever; DF),到可能致死的登革出血熱 (dengue hemorrhagic fever; DHF) 或登革休克症狀 (dengue shock syndrome; DSS)。DHF/DSS的主要臨床病徵為血管病變滲漏、血小板減少症、和出血,然而機制至今尚未清楚。本實驗室過去的研究結果顯示,抗登革病毒非結構性蛋白1抗體 (anti-DENV NS1 antibodies) 交叉結合至內皮細胞上。經由蛋白質體學方法的分析,anti-DENV NS1 antibodies (Abs) 可能辨識的標的蛋白質包含:ATP synthase -chain,vimentin,熱休克蛋白質60 (heat shock protein 60)及蛋白質雙琉鍵異構酶 (protein disulfide isomerase, PDI)。序列比對下發現DENV NS1蛋白質C端胺基酸序列311-352間與這些分子有序列上不等程度的相似性。將DENV NS1胺基酸序列277-352去除產生truncated NS1 (tNS1),並且免疫小鼠產生anti-DENV tNS1 Abs。結果發現anti-DENV tNS1 Abs對內皮細胞結合能力較anti-DENV NS1 Abs低。登革病人血清結合到內皮細胞的能力會被NS1的C端胜肽 (P311: 胺基酸序列311-330及P331: 胺基酸序列331-350) 所抑制。這些結果證明NS1的C端可誘導自體抗體的生成。我們也構築了缺少C端胺基酸序列271-352的delta C NS1以及含有DENV NS1 N端序列1-270及日本腦炎 (Japanese encephalitis virus, JEV) NS1 C端序列271-352的嵌合蛋白DJ NS1,並產生抗體。 在登革病毒引發小鼠出血模式中,anti-delta C NS1 Abs及anti-DJ Abs可以降低病毒所引起的小鼠尾巴出血延長、局部皮膚出血、NS3抗原表現、以及巨噬細胞的浸潤。PDI為anti-DENV NS1 Abs可能辨識的標的蛋白質之一,並且許多病毒與細菌的進入需要細胞表面的PDI之還原功能,所以我們探討了在登革病毒感染中PDI表現在內皮細胞表面的角色。利用siRNA將PDI表現降低,登革病毒感染也會降低,但是這樣的現象會被還原劑TCEP所回復。登革病毒感染後,PDI藉由內質網-高基氏體分泌系統而在內皮細胞表面增加。在登革病毒感染後,細胞表面的PDI與beta 1 and beta 3 integrins位置重合,並且PDI的抑制會阻斷integrin的活化。更進一步,阻斷PDI也會阻止登革病毒進入內皮細胞。綜合以上,本研究將有助於了解利用修飾C端後的NS1做為疫苗的可行性,以及進一步了解在登革病毒感染內皮細胞後,自體抗原表現所造成的影響與對抗病毒的應用。
英文摘要 Infection with dengue virus (DENV) causes diseases ranging widely in severity, from self-limited dengue fever (DF) to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Vascular leakage, thrombocytopenia, and bleeding are the clinical manifestations associated with DENV infection, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that anti-DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antibodies (Abs) cross-reacted with endothelial cells. From proteomic analysis, the potential candidate proteins recognized by anti-DENV NS1 Abs include ATP synthase -chain, vimentin, heat shock protein 60, and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). The C-terminal amino acid (a.a.) 311-352 of DENV NS1 shows certain degrees of homology with the candidate proteins. We deleted the a.a. 277-352 of DENV NS1 to prepare truncated NS1 (tNS1) and generated anti-DENV tNS1 Abs in mice. The endothelial cell-binding activity of anti-DENV tNS1 Abs was lower than that of anti-DENV NS1 Abs. The endothelial cell-binding activity of dengue patient sera was inhibited by preabsorption with the C-terminal peptides of NS1 (P311: a.a.311-330, P331: a.a.331-350). These results demonstrated that the NS1 C-terminal region contributes to the production of autoantibodies. We also constructed the NS1 lacking the C-terminal a.a. 271-352 (designated delta C NS1) and chimeric NS1 consisting of N-terminus of DENV NS1 (a.a. 1-270) and C-terminus of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) NS1 (a.a. 271-352) (designated DJ NS1) to generate Abs. Using a DENV-induced hemorrhage mouse model, anti-delta C NS1 and anti-DJ NS1 Abs reduced DENV-induced mouse tail prolonged bleeding time, hemorrhage of local skin tissue, NS3 antigen expression, and macrophage infiltration. One of the candidate self-proteins recognized by anti-DENV NS1 antibodies is PDI, and its reducing function at the cell surface has been shown to be required for entry of various viruses and bacteria. We, therefore, explored the role of PDI expressed on the endothelial cell surface in DENV infection. Using siRNA to knock down PDI, DENV infection was reduced which could be reversed by treating cells with a reducing agent TCEP. After DENV infection, the PDI level on the endothelial cell surface was increased via an ER-Golgi secretion system. Cell surface PDI colocalized with beta 1 and beta 3 integrins after DENV infection, and the activation of integrins was blocked by PDI inhibition. Furthermore, blockade of PDI inhibited DENV entry into endothelial cells. Taken together, these studies will help to understand the potential implications of C-terminus-modified NS1 in vaccine strategy, and the effects of autoantigen expression in DENV-infected endothelial cells and its applications for antiviral drug design.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
English Abstract III
致謝 V
Table of Contents VII
Figure List XI
Abbreviation List XIII
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1. Introduction of dengue virus 1
1.1.1. Characteristics of dengue virus 1
1.1.2. Life cycle of dengue virus 3
1.1.3. Epidemiology of dengue virus 4
1.2. Dengue disease classification and manifestations 5
1.3. The pathogenesis of dengue virus infection 6
1.3.1. Viral pathogenesis 6
1.3.2. Immunopathogenesis 7
1.4. Autoimmunity and molecular mimicry in viral infections 8
1.5. DENV NS1 and anti-DENV NS1 Abs 10
1.5.1. The studies of anti-DENV NS1 Abs in our laboratory 10
1.5.2. The clinical studies of DENV NS1 and anti-DENV NS1 Abs 11
1.5.3. DENV NS1 in dengue vaccine 12
1.6. Dengue hemorrhage mouse model 14
1.7. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) 14
1.7.1. Characteristics of PDI 14
1.7.2. PDI and integrin 15
1.8. Objectives and perspectives 16
Chapter 2. Specific Aims 17
Chapter 3. Materials and Methods 19
3.1. Materials 19
3.1.1. Mice 19
3.1.2. Cell lines 19
3.1.3. Platelet preparation 19
3.1.4. Virus 19
3.1.5. Dengue patient sera 20
3.1.6. Preparation of recombinant proteins and Abs 20
3.1.7. Drugs and reagents 21
3.1.8. Antibodies 23
3.1.9. Kits 25
3.1.10. Consumables 25
3.1.11. Instruments 26
3.2. Methods 27
3.2.1. Cell culture 27
3.2.2. ELISA 27
3.2.3. Flow cytometry 28
3.2.4. Plaque assay 29
3.2.5. Animal protection model 30
3.2.6. Histopathology 30
3.2.7. Immunohistochemistry staining 30
3.2.8 Bleeding time 31
3.2.9. Infection of endothelial cells with DENV 31
3.2.10. Ab-dependent complement-mediated cytolytic assay 32
3.2.11. Effect of Abs and complement on DENV proliferation 32
3.2.12. ELISA of MCP-1 levels 32
3.2.13. Western blotting 33
3.2.14. Confocal microscopy 33
3.2.15 Adhesion assay 34
3.2.16. Transfection with siRNA 34
3.2.17. Viral entry assay 35
3.2.18. Statistics 35
Chapter 4. Results 36
4.1. The role of NS1 C-terminal region in dengue autoimmune pathogenesis 36
4.1.1. The role of the C-terminus of DENV NS1 for the cross-reactivity of anti-DENV NS1 with endothelial cells. 36
4.1.2. The role of the C-terminus of DENV NS1 for the cross-reactivity of dengue patient sera with endothelial cells. 37
4.2. The protective effects of the Abs against C-terminal modified NS1 proteins in DENV infection 38
4.2.1. The absence of pathogenic effects of Abs against modified NS1 protein lacking cross-reactive epitopes both in vivo and in vitro. 38
4.2.2. The protective effects of Abs against modified NS1 protein in DENV-induced hemorrhagic mouse model. 39
4.2.3. Abs against modified NS1 protein induce complement-mediated cytotoxicity in DENV-infected endothelial cells and inhibit viral proliferation. 40
4.2.4. Abs against modified NS1 protein reduce macrophage infiltration in DENV-induced hemorrhagic mouse model. 42
4.3. The role of PDI expressed on the endothelial cell surface in DENV infection 43
4.3.1. Treatment with disulfide reducing agent enhances DENV infection into endothelial cells. 43
4.3.2. DENV induces cell surface expression of PDI through the ER-Golgi secretion pathway. 44
4.3.3. Effects of PDI on 1 and 3 integrin activation and DENV infection. 46
4.3.4. PDI-mediated integrin activation enhances DENV entry. 47
Chapter 5. Discussion 49
5.1. The roles of DENV NS1 and anti-DENV NS1 Abs in natural DENV infection. 49
5.2. The correlation of anti-DENV NS1 and anti-endothelial cell Abs. 49
5.3. The Abs against modified NS1 protein have protective effects in DENV infection without pathogenic effects. 50
5.4. The advantages and other concerns of using modified NS1 protein as dengue vaccine strategy. 51
5.5. The roles of anti-DENV NS1 Abs in PDI. 53
5.6. The roles of PDI in DENV infection. 54
5.7. The mechanisms of DENV-induced surface expression of PDI. 54
5.8. Other receptors for DNEV infection. 55
Chapter 6. Conclusions 57
References 59
Figures and figure legends 74
Appendix 101
Curriculum Vitae 106
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