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系統識別號 U0026-1512200915490200
論文名稱(中文) 應用點雲點線面特徵進行地面光達多測站資料結合之聯合平差
論文名稱(英文) Multi-station Registration and Adjustment of Terrestrial LiDAR Data Using Point, Line and Plane Features
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 測量及空間資訊學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Geomatics
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 黃建銘
研究生(英文) Chien-Ming Huang
學號 p6696407
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 93頁
口試委員 指導教授-曾義星
口試委員-林昭宏
口試委員-趙鍵哲
口試委員-韓仁毓
中文關鍵字 地面光達  特徵萃取  點雲套合 
英文關鍵字 Terrestrial lidar  feature extraction  point cloud registration 
學科別分類
中文摘要 地面光達利用雷射掃描技術可獲取地物表面大量的三維點位,由於每一掃描站具有掃描範圍的限制,通常須以多測站的方式進行場景掃描,再將所有測站點雲拼接成完整掃描場景的資料。然而因各測站的點雲資料均屬於不同的局部坐標系統,必須透過轉換將各站點雲整合至統一的坐標系統中。目前常見的方法為以點雲為基礎(Point cloud-based)之反覆最鄰近點法(Iterative Closest Point),但此法對初始值的要求較高且容易受到粗差(Outliers)的影響,故本研究以特徵為基礎(Feature-based)的方式,來完成點雲的套合。

每一測站點雲中通常分佈著許多可利用的點、直線與平面特徵,共軛的特徵經坐標轉換至地面坐標系統時,應維持相同特徵性質,依據此特性可建立坐標轉換之觀測方程式,進行坐標轉換參數之整體平差計算。因此本研究從各測站點雲中萃取出共軛的點、直線及平面特徵,並於場景內佈設至少三個控制標點,利用所有共軛特徵及控制點進行多測站多特徵之聯合平差,解算各測站與地面坐標系統間的轉換參數,完成所有測站點雲的套合。

由實驗數據得知,利用點特徵進行傳統單站互相銜接之整體套合RMSE精度為0.752公尺,而在最小約制的條件下,點特徵多測站平差的整體套合結果則為0.097公尺,另外結合點線面特徵之聯合平差方面,其分別在E、N、H方向及整體上較點特徵多測站平差提升了44.2%、7.2%、20%與18.6%之精度,證實多特徵多測站的聯合平差可減少誤差傳播的影響且有助於增加點雲套合之準確度。

英文摘要 Ground-based LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is capable of collecting a large amount of 3D point coordinates for landscape reconstruction. However, the observed point cloud of a single ground-based LiDAR station has limited scanning coverage. Combining point clouds obtained from several scanning stations is usually required to obtain a complete coverage of a landscape. It means that each point cloud defined its own local coordinate system should be transformed into a common coordinate system, which is usually the ground coordinate system. Iterative Closest Point (ICP) is one of popular approaches for point cloud registration, but it suffers from the low tolerance for outliers and the high requirement of initials. A feature-based adjustment using the point, line and plane features is proposed in this research to accomplish the point cloud registration.

Features of points, lines and planes can be found easily in a LiDAR point cloud. Conjugate features identified in different point clouds will maintain the invariant properties, when they are transformed into other coordinate systems. This enables the formation of observation equations using point, line and plane features to solve the parameters of coordinate transformation. Therefore, the adjustment computation of combining various features and ground control points can be performed for the registration of multi-station point clouds.

The experiments show that the overall RMSE of using point feature to register point clouds station by station is 0.792m, and under the minimum constraint, the multi-station registration result of using point feature is 0.097m; besides, the directions of E, N and H and overall RMSEs of combining point and line with plane features can be reduced 44.2%, 7.2%, 20% and 18.6% than only adopting point feature. As results reveal the multi-station point clouds adjustment of applying multi features can not only reduce the effect of error propagation but increase the accuracy of registration.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
§ 1-1 研究動機與目的 1
§ 1-2 研究流程與方法 5
§ 1-3 論文架構 7
第二章 多測站點雲共軛特徵分析 8
§ 2-1 地面光達掃描原理與點雲資料特性 8
§ 2-1-1 地面光達測距原理及掃描方式 8
§ 2-1-2 地面光達點雲資料特性 11
§ 2-2 點雲共軛特徵分析 14
§ 2-3 以擬合及交會方式萃取點雲幾何特徵 18
§ 2-3-1 擬合特徵 19
§ 2-3-2 交會特徵 21
第三章 多特徵多測站聯合平差 27
§ 3-1 點特徵多測站聯合平差模式 28
§ 3-2 直線特徵多測站聯合平差模式 33
§ 3-3 平面特徵多測站聯合平差模式 37
§ 3-4 點線面特徵多測站聯合平差 41
§ 3-5 不同觀測量之權值 41
第四章 實驗及成果分析 46
§ 4-1 模擬資料 46
§ 4-1-1 點特徵多測站平差 49
§ 4-1-2 直線特徵多測站平差 50
§ 4-1-3 平面特徵多測站平差 51
§ 4-1-4 點線面多測站聯合平差 52
§ 4-2實際點雲與地面控制點資料 53
§ 4-2-1 以最小約制進行平差計算 63
§ 4-2-2 控制點數之影響 71
§ 4-2-3 與測站兩兩拼接之比較 76
第五章 結論與建議 78
參考文獻 80
附錄一 點特徵偏微分 84
附錄二 直線特徵偏微分 87
附錄三 平面特徵偏微分 92
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