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系統識別號 U0026-1511201510555300
論文名稱(中文) 運用擴增實境技術於自閉症青少年情緒表現與社交技巧訓練
論文名稱(英文) Augmented Reality Technology for Promoting the Emotional Expression and Social Skills of Adolescents with Autism
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 104
學期 1
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 李易叡
研究生(英文) I-Jui Lee
學號 p38981047
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 125頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳建旭
共同指導教授-林玲伊
口試委員-吳豐光
召集委員-陳國祥
口試委員-江心瑜
口試委員-洪郁修
中文關鍵字 自閉症  擴增實境  視覺指引  視覺提示  影片示範  非口語線索  情緒感知  自我表情示範 
英文關鍵字 Autism  Augmented Reality  Visual Indicator  Visual Supports  Video Modeling  Nonverbal Social Cues  Emotional Awareness  Self-Facial Modeling 
學科別分類
中文摘要 自閉症者對於理解他人情緒上的先天缺陷,導致患者在與他人的社交互動行為上產生困難,而這項能力牽涉到患者是否能夠有效的辨識他人的臉部表情,與理解其他關鍵的非口語社交線索。證據顯示,自閉症者往往會忽略某些人際互動中的非口語社交線索,導致他們不容易去理解對方的情緒意圖,而做出不適當的行為反應。因此,在本研究中,研究者試圖使用不同的視覺策略,去強化自閉症者在辨識臉部表情方面和其他非口語社交線索 (例如表情,肢體動作,情境) 的專注訓練上,研究者盡可能去幫助自閉症者學習如何去辨識他人情緒,意圖與做出合適的社交互惠行為。在本篇論文當中,研究者針對幾項重要的社交目的進行研究,包括 (a)吸引自閉症孩童的注意力,並強化在那些能夠輔助自閉症者與他人互動的非口語社交線索上。(b)訓練自閉症孩童理解自我與他人的情緒表情,並達到提升社交技巧。(c)幫助他們去建構有用的社交資訊,呈現在穩定的視覺內容設計上,並透過情境讓他們去揣摩合適的臉部情緒表情。(d)最終達到有效提升自閉症者的社交情緒判斷能力。為了以上目的,本研究針對自閉症者的社交情緒訓練進行相關研究與文獻探索,並於四階段實驗設計中進行深入討論。

在第一階段研究試驗中: Stop Motion Videos (SMV),研究者由廣告影片中,擷取出具社交意義的影像片段,製作成靜態關鍵影格,作為訓練自閉症孩童的視覺材料,SMVs包含了序列故事片段中的非口語社交線索,建構該視覺方法的目的主要是讓自閉症者能夠透過結構化的視覺材料進行觀察與揣摩。研究者透過由六位自閉症孩童(四男二女)的測驗資料。研究者檢驗了他們之間的判斷數據差異。在他們觀看了兩種不同類型的影片材料:動態影片Video-Based Advertising (VBA)與靜態關鍵影格 (SMVs),結果指出靜態關鍵影格的視覺材料確實能夠為自閉症者提供結構化且穩定的社交線索,讓他們的注意力集中在這些靜態關鍵影格上,對於提升他們的情感判斷,與情境理解上的確具有幫助。並更進一步的證實了非口語社交線索在視覺材料當中,對於自閉症者在提升社交情緒與情境感知能力上具有一定的重要性。

在第二階段的研究試驗中: Cliplets-Based Video (CBV),研究者透過動態與靜態的視覺內容設計,希望能夠幫助提升自閉症青少年的注意力,專注在某部分特定的影像內容上。此外,研究者在前階段SMVs的試驗中,認為靜態或片段的影像內容過於受到侷限,並不符合真實生活中的環境現況。而動態影像雖然具有視覺優勢,但自閉症者難以維持其注意力在這些動態畫面上。故研究者使用Microsoft Cliplets所提供的軟體創造了一種折衷的視覺材料,能夠讓影片在特定的社交元素上產生動態效果,而在周遭的畫面上,則採用靜止的方式呈現。因此這項科技應用,允許研究者能夠簡單地創造出半靜止且半動態的影片材料,去吸引自閉症者的視覺注意力導引至動態部分的非口語臉部線索上。目的是為了能夠讓自閉症者能夠去專注在這些出現在社交環境中的臉部社交表情。研究者透過台灣自閉症協會重新招募自閉症個案(四男二女)作為本研究的參與者,並採用單一個案試驗法中的跨基線期實驗設計進行成效評估,研究者發現這樣的介入學習系統,提供了一個簡單且有效率的視覺方法,能夠讓自閉症者專注於重要的非口語臉部線索出現於相對應的情境場景中。

第三階段的研究試驗中: Augmented Reality-Based Video Modeling storybook (ARVMS),研究者希望能夠提高自閉症青少年的參與動機,並且更加強化他們的注意力在故事本身所發生的事件上,並透過有效率的方式去融入實體書本與虛擬的動態影片內容,去獲得情境片段上的動態視覺畫面延伸。研究者使用擴增實境(Augmented Reality)的技術,與影片示範(Video Modeling)方法並結合實體故事書的方式,去強化與吸引自閉症者的注意力在非口語社交線索上,因為自閉症者很難去調整他們的注意力焦點。故在本研究階段上,擴增實境技術同時扮演了兩個功能,其一是延伸了社交故事的媒體內容,但同時又限制了觀看者的注意力在那些最需要專注的部分。實驗過程中同樣重新招募新的自閉症受測者(五男一女),在三階段的試驗中(基線期,介入期,追蹤期)的資料蒐集後,結果顯示ARVMS的介入提供了有效的輔助視覺線索指引(Visual Indicator),讓自閉症者的專注力有效的維持並顯著地提升,研究者成功維持他們的注意力在非口語社交線索上,專注力的提升也同時幫助他們更有效地去瞭解社交情境與角色的情緒在故事情節中。

最後在第四階段研究試驗中: Augmented-Reality-Based Self-Facial Modeling Learning System (ARSFM),針對特定的臉部表情與對應的社交事件進行連結,透過自閉症參與者自身的臉部表情特徵進行三維度立體動畫建置,並透過擴增實境的方法去疊加在參與者的臉上,讓參與者可以透過自我影片示範(Self-Facial Modeling)的視覺觀點,去揣摩自己的臉部表情在不同的情境與情緒狀態下,提升他們能夠適當地去對應正確的情緒表情的能力,並可比較不同的表情差異。在ARSFM系統中,提供三維度的六種情緒表情動畫,系統可選擇不同表情疊加在自閉症參與者(新招募二男一女)的臉上,並讓他們有機會去揣摩與判斷自我的情緒表情變化,與社交技巧訓練。在多重基線期設計下,實驗資料顯示擴增實境系統的介入,能夠有效的提升自閉症孩童對於臉部情緒表情的辨識率在對應的情境任務上。

在本研究中,對應的四個實驗階段與數據結果的顯示,讓研究者理解如何透過視覺策略來幫助自閉症者建構有效判別情緒社交線索的視覺框架,並且幫助他們提升辨識情緒於複雜社交情境中的能力。研究者描述這些研究結果在後續的章節當中,並透過使用這些視覺策略去促進自閉症者去想像與揣摩某些事件與情境,並且讓他們去判斷對應的情緒與執行社交互惠的行為,並運用在自我與他人之間的互動當中。然而透過這些有效的視覺指引策略,研究者證實這些由於自閉症者自身的發展缺陷所導致的社交障礙,都可透過視覺線索的輔助得到改善,並且有效轉移他們的目光在非口語的社交線索上。依據嚴謹的實驗設計架構下,本研究最終證實自閉症孩童可以透過這些視覺方法去提升他們的社交技巧,也能夠運用這些創新的視覺策略去改善他們目前的社交困境。
英文摘要 People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a reduced ability to understand the emotions of other people; this ability involves recognizing facial expressions and other nonverbal social cues. Evidence shows that adolescents with ASD miss out on nonverbal cues to social interaction, which leads to difficultly understanding and appropriately responding to other people. Therefore, in this research, we created a different visual strategy would improve the focus that adolescents with ASD have on the facial expressions and other nonverbal social cues of other people and help them understand their emotions and intentions to appropriately respond to others in social situations. This dissertation aims to examine (a) how to attract the attention of adolescents with ASD to the nonverbal cues that help most people socially interact with others; (b) how to train adolescents with ASD to understand their own emotional expressions and those of others to promote their social skills; (c) Help them to construct the information on the stable visual contents and imagine the emotional situation to pretend appropriate facial expressions. (d) Promote their social emotional judgment ability. In addition, related works were surveyed and given precise commentaries in four studies.

In the first study, we retrieved social signals from commercials to create stop motion videos (SMVs) to make training materials that contain sequences of nonverbal social cues to support this visual method. We reviewed the differences in judgment data from adolescents with ASD (4 boys, 2 girls) after they had viewed two types of advertising videos: Video-Based Advertising (VBA) and SMVs. The results indicated that SMV materials offered structured and specific social signals of close-up images for adolescents with ASD, helping raise their levels of perceptions judgment and situation comprehension.

Furthermore, we confirmed that the non-verbal social cues in the video can effectively improve social emotional and situational awareness for ASD.
In the Cliplets-Based Video (CBV) study we are more interested in the dynamic and static visual design that can increase the focus of adolescents with ASD's attention on only a part of the image. We found that using static or fragmented images is too limited and not ecologically valid. Dynamic videos are advantageous, but adolescents with ASD have trouble focusing their attention on these materials. Microsoft Cliplets provides a halfway point: it allows animation of a specific element and concomitantly permits all of the surrounding elements be static and not distracting. Therefore, we used software technology that allows for the easy creation of half-static and half-dynamic video materials to attract the attention of adolescents with ASD to nonverbal facial cues to teach them the six basic facial expressions in typical social situations. We recruited new participants through the Taiwan Autism Association, six adolescents (4 boys, 2 girls) with ASD, and used a multiple baseline design across participants. This interventional learning system provided a simple yet effective way for adolescents with ASD to select and focus on the important nonverbal facial cues related to social situations.

Furthermore, in the augmented reality (AR)-based video modeling (VM) storybook (ARVMS) study, we hoped to increase the motivation of the adolescents and to strengthen their attention to the story event on the screen. To accomplish this, we recruited more new participants (5 boys, 1 girl) for the ARVMS study and used a method that included an ARVMS that created a layer between a tangible book and virtual dynamic video clips. In this research, AR has multiple functions: it extends the social features of the story, and it also restricts attention to the most important parts of the videos. After three phases (baseline, intervention, and maintenance) of test data had been collected, the results showed that ARVMS intervention provided an augmented visual indicator which had effectively attracted and maintained the attention of adolescents with ASD to nonverbal social cues and helped them better understand the facial expressions and emotions of the storybook characters.

Finally, this study, Augmented-Reality-Based Self-Facial Modeling Learning System (ARSFM) focus on the linkage between the specific facial expressions and corresponding social events related through the participants’ own three-dimensional (3D) facial expressions so that they can learn from their own point of view to mirror facial expressions of different mood states, and to promote the development of the appropriate corresponding emotional expression, and compare them with the expressions of others. The AR system provided 3D animations of six basic facial expressions overlaid on the participants’ faces; we recruited new participants (2 boys, 1 girl) to facilitate practicing emotional judgments and social skills. Based on the multiple baseline design across subjects, we found that AR intervention improved the appropriate recognition and response to facial emotional expressions seen in the situational task.

In this research, the findings of these descriptive and correlational four studies allowed the researcher to understand how to use this visual strategy to help adolescents with ASD construct their visual structure and improve their ability to recognize the emotional expressions in social situations. We carefully describe our results in the following chapters. We used this visual strategy to push adolescents with ASD as our design partners and testers by associating the ideas and feelings of the characters in the scenario settings that we created. We hypothesized that this would positively affect the ability of adolescents with ASD to take advantage of visual cues in the situations that depend on shifting attention to nonverbal social cues. Based on this hypothesis, we verified that the adolescents with ASD would improve their social skills.
論文目次 ABSTRACT__III
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS__VI
TABLE OF CONTENTS__VII
LIST OF TABLES__XI
LIST OF FIGURES__XII
GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS__XIV

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION__1
1.1 Background__1
1.2 Motivation of this research__3
1.3 Purpose__5
1.4 Importance of the Study__6
1.5 Organization of the Dissertation__7

CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW__9
2.1 What is Autism Spectrum Disorders ?__9
2.2 What are the key clues that young adolescents with ASD need to learn?__10
2.3 Facial expressions are key clues that need to be learned__11
2.4 Theory of Mind__12
2.5 Four experiments model__13
2.5.1 First part: Stop-Motion Video materials can help adolescents with ASD improve their visual ability to better comprehend social contexts__16
2.5.2 Second part: Cliplets-Based Video materials can teach adolescents with ASD pay attention to some social signals and ignore others__19
2.5.3 Third part: Augmented-Reality-Based Video Modeling Storybook can extend the social features of the story but it also restricts attention to the most important parts of the videos__23
2.5.4 Fourth part: Augmented-Reality-Based Self-Facial Modeling Learning System can be used to train the self-facial modeling reflection of adolescents with ASD__28
2.6 Summary__30

CHAPTER III: METHODS__32
3.1 The four developmental stages of experiments__32
3.2 Important developing direction in research__35
3.3 Hypotheses and Predictions__37
3.4 Experimental methods__38
3.4.1 Single-subject research method__38
3.4.2 Multiple Baseline designs__39
3.4.3 Reversal or A-B-A Design__40
3.4.4 Participant Screening Criteria__40
3.5 Method of Stop Motion Videos__42
3.5.1 Participants__42
3.5.2 Setting__43
3.5.3 Stimuli__43
3.5.4 Procedures__46
3.5.5 Measurement Materials__49
3.6 Method of Cliplets-Based Video__51
3.6.1 Participants__51
3.6.2 Setting__52
3.6.3 Stimuli__52
3.6.4 Procedures__56
3.6.5 Measurement Materials__58
3.7 Method of Augmented-Reality-Based Video Modeling Storybook__61
3.7.1 Participants__61
3.7.2 Setting__62
3.7.3 Stimuli__63
3.7.4 Experimental conditions__66
3.7.5 Measurement Materials__69
3.8 Method of Augmented-Reality-Based Self-Facial Modeling Learning System__72
3.8.1 Participants__72
3.8.2 Setting__73
3.8.3 Stimuli__74
3.8.4 Procedures__77
3.8.5 Measurement Materials__78

CHAPTER IV: RESULTS__80
4.1 Results of Stop Motion Videos__80
4.1.1 Judgments of Emotions__80
4.1.2 Situational comprehension__81
4.2 Results of Cliplets-Based Video__84
4.3 Results of Augmented-Reality-Based Video Modeling Storybook__87
4.4 Results of Augmented-Reality-Based Self-Facial Modeling Learning System__90

CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS__92
5.1 Stop Motion Videos__92
5.2 Cliplets-Based Video__93
5.3 Augmented-Reality-Based Video Modeling Storybook__95
5.4 Augmented-Reality-Based Self-Facial Modeling Learning System__97
5.5 Conclusion__101

REFERENCES__103
APPENDIX I__118
APPENDIX II__120
CURRICULU VITAE__121
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